Monday, September 30, 2019

Equality And Diversity Within The Workplace Essay

When I am supporting the individuals I work with, I find it vital to always reflect on my work. What I do well, what I don’t do well and improve and enhance my performance. It is important for me to think about and evaluate what I do, as I can always improve to fit the customers needs. I like to focus on how I interact with the customers, and how the environment around them is. I have a reflective log/personal development plan which I fill out and give to my manager each year. It contains examples of what I can do to improve and shape ideas. I also write about my strengths and what I do well. Other than a yearly personal development plan, I am always discussing with my manager and colleagues different and better ways in which we can work as a team to better the lives of the customers we support. When I first began working in care and support, I thought, through following other staff who had worked in the industry a long while, that it was okay to prompt customers to say â€Å"please† and â€Å"thank you†. Since building up my own way of working and knowledge through others, I know that it is right and better for the customers to let them make their own decisions. My own values and beliefs could affect my working practice, as I work with other people who have different beliefs and values. In a professional environment, I have to accept and support the people I work alongside and work for, if I don’t agree with their values or beliefs, I try my hardest to understand their point of view, and of course if it is a customers point of view, I will support them in what they want to do. For example, one of the ladies I support openly admits she is racist, and she stands by her beliefs. My job is to be kind and supportive, and although I don’t personally agree with racism, it is my job to be open minded and supportive. Diversity means to encompass acceptance for others, and respect all beings as unique individuals. It is important to recognize others as individuals, including their race, sex, religions and beliefs, sexual orientation, age and other concepts that make us the way we are. Diversity is about moving forward and being able to accept everyone for who they are. Equality is about each and every individual being seen as equal to one another. To be fair and give everyone equal opportunities, no matter their race, age,  religion etc. Promoting equality should remove discrimination towards others, and to not victimize or harass others for the way they are. Inclusion is ensuring people are being included, engaging in ‘everyday’ things and having human rights. To have a sense of belonging and feeling respected is a part of inclusion, and valuing all individuals. The effect a person could have by being discriminated could be different to another person. The adults I support should be given choices and chances to join in with activities, and if the were judged for having a disability, this would be discrimination. This could make the individual feel a lot of different things, depressed, stressed, fear, feeling withdrawn, low self esteem and humiliation. I always ensure the two customers I support are involved in everyday activities, such as cleaning their home, cooking their dinner and choosing what they would like to wear. There are many pieces of legislation that have been put in place to ensure equality is promoted and discrimination is reduced, these include: The Human Rights Act 1998, The Disability Discrimination Act 2005 and Employment Equality Regulations 2003. These legislations are to promote equality for all, regardless of sex, age, disability or religion etc. Although these legislations are in place, people still may not be able to change their views or opinions, and this is why good practice should be set in place, and others should reflect on how they work and support others. Everyone has a right to be included, and to participate in equal activities and to be valued as a unique individual. One of the customers I support had never been to church at 37 years old, and had told me one day that she would like to go. We walked up to the church and attended a service one Sunday, which she really enjoyed and was extremely happy to join in with singing hymns, praying and interacting with other church goers. She decided that she only wanted to go on special occasions, such as Christmas and Easter, and I respected her choices and updated her ‘This is Me’ document. If I was to witness a discriminatory incident, I would write down what happened in my own personal records, and report the incident to my line manager. If would possibly challenge the person in a calm and professional manner, and tell them that what they are saying or doing is unacceptable, and explain to them why. In my workplace, discrimination towards another person can lead to disciplinary action, and we have policies in place to deal with discrimination. My duties and responsibilities in my job role are to support adults with learning disabilities with good practice, and complying to all policies and procedures whilst doing so. Improving my performance at work is an everyday thing, I always remain focused and keep a reflective journal of which I record daily things, what I could improve, be done differently, how I feel about things and why I do them. Throughout my shift, I keep an open mind, and look at things from different perspectives, for example if a customer wants to go out in the snow without shoes on, I would support them in trying to think of a different way to do this, such as wearing shoes or waiting until it is sunny to wear no shoes in the garden. This way, the customer still has different options, but the potential negative outcomes would be explained to them e.g. catching a cold or something more serious. I have a personal development plan, and I see my line manager as my mentor. She goes through my PDP with me and supports me to achieve my goals. Within my PDP are various things including training I would like to attend, usually optional training that would benefit my knowledge and understanding and the customers I support. I am applying for the senior support worker programme this year, which is a programme my company set up to give support workers guidance and training if they want to become a manager in the future. This includes giving presentations and working extra hours and taking on more responsibilities such as doing rotas, giving other staff supervisions and being the PIC – Person in Charge. My manager reviews my personal development plan yearly, and sets me goals and targets to achieve throughout the year, for example attend MCA training, support a customer on holiday and complete my diploma in health and social care. Monitoring my own practice has changed the way in which I work for the better. By attending more training, for example epilepsy training, I now have a better knowledge about epilepsy, and what to do if someone has a seizure. Completing my diploma will change and advance my job role as I will have learned more about vulnerable adults, practices and standards and more to help me support the best way I can. I have a yearly appraisal which is part of my PDP. My manager tells me what I  am doing well and what I can improve on, and I continue to feedback to her every month during my supervision to ensure I am on my way to achieve my goals and have a successful appraisal. My beliefs and values are something I keep out of the workplace, as some people I support and work alongside have different views to me, which I need to respect in a professional manner. What I believe in and value are a part of who I am as a person, and the same goes for others, therefore as a professional I must provide the same quality of support to each individual, not just those who believe in the same things I do.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Narrative (fiction) texts Essay

Children should be able to distinguish narrative texts from expository ones. For a child to be familiar with each type of text means to possess sound communicational, analytical, reading, and writing skills. DQ 14 It is critical that children are able to distinguish expository texts from narrative works of writing. Generally, there are several features which make narrative and expository texts different from each other. Narrative (fiction) texts are filled with numerous sensory details. Personal experience is not a rare subject of fiction stories. Fiction literary works are usually told from a first person’s view. In many instances, the author of a fiction story will refer to personal interpretation of events and phenomena by using â€Å"I† or â€Å"we† pronouns. Expository (non-fiction) texts are primarily aimed at informing, explaining, or persuading the reader. Expository texts are not colored with emotions, being written from a non-personal (often neutrally objective) viewpoint, and carrying no sensory details. Expository texts are never written in the first person (Vacca, 1999). Children should be able to differentiate expository texts from narrative literary works. Children need these skills to read and interpret texts, to be able to search and analyze the required information, to choose a correct writing style according to the specific writing needs and circumstances (Vacca, 1999). The process of education requires using either expository or narrative information as the source of knowledge on various curriculum subjects. To understand the meaning of a word, to communicate with audiences, to acquire new information, and to use this information to achieve personal goals, children need to possess sound knowledge on what a fiction, and what a non-fiction text is. The five examples of fiction books: Louis Ehlert’s Red Leaf, Yellow Leaf; Mary Hoffman’s Amazing Grace; Jerry Stanley’s Children on the Dust Bowl; Harriette Gillem Robinet’s Children of the Fire; Marya Dasef’s Tales of a Texas Boy. The five examples of non-fiction books: DK Publishing’s Children’s History of the 20th century; Delia Ray’s A Nation Torn: The Story of How the Civil War Began; Anne Millard’s Pyramids; Aliki’s Communication; Russell Freedman’s Children of the Wild West. References Vacca, R. T. (1999). Content area reading: Literacy and learning across the curriculum. New York: Longman.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Reading averages for school samples serving K-2 Essay

The sample in Table 1 was uncharacteristic of the all three samples. Grade two MCT reading results for the 2005 school year demonstrated lower reading averages in school one which had a lower percentage of impoverished and non-white students. This was not the case in sample two and three. In order to validate these results, the 2005 reading scores were compared to those of 2004 and 2003. As demonstrated in Table 1, school two has consistently scored lower than school one; however, the reading averages for both schools only vary approximately five percent between the years of 2003 and 2005. This is not enough of a variance to determine if ethnic background is a major indication of the difference between reading proficiencies. The researcher also considered class size (FTE) as a factor in the levels of reading achievement. The amount of students per teacher (FTE) however did not appear to have any influence on the reading proficiency levels of schools one and two since the FTE percentage was the same. Table 1 Sample One: Reading Averages for K-2 Schools (Grade 2) ______________________________________________________________________ Reading Impoverished Ethnicity Three Year FTE Average Students (SES) nonwhite Average ______________________________________________________________________ School 1 93 80 54 ~94 15 School 2 92 74 52 ~89 15 ______________________________________________________________________ Note. The state second grade reading average for Mississippi in 2005 was eighty-eight percent. Appendix B Reading Averages for School Samples Serving K-3 Second grade MCT reading averages for the two sample schools differed greatly for the 2005 school year. School 1A demonstrated a much lower second grade reading proficiency, as well as a higher SES. In contrast, school 2A had a low SES percentage and higher test results. The percentage of non-white students was close between the two schools, the highest however was found in school 2A. The FTE in schools one and two differed slightly with school 2A having an average of seventeen students per teacher versus fifteen students per teacher in school 1A. In order to validate the MCT results, the 2005 reading scores were compared to those of 2004 and 2003. The three year average of second grade MCT scores demonstrates that school 2A has consistently had higher test scores than school 1A. This sample demonstrates that the only probable influence on the MCT scores, and reading proficiency in general would be the SES percentage. Table 2 Sample Two: Reading Averages for K-3 Schools Grades 2 & 3 ______________________________________________________________________ Reading Impoverished Ethnicity Three Year FTE Average Students (SES) nonwhite Average ______________________________________________________________________ 2nd 3rd 2nd 3rd _____________ ____________ School 1A 79 75 94 51 80 ~75 15 School 2A 92 98 73 54 ~96 ~95 17 ______________________________________________________________________ Note. The state second grade reading average for Mississippi in 2005 was eighty-eight percent. The third grade reading average for Mississippi was eighty-four percent. Appendix C Reading Averages for School Samples Serving K-5 The following table demonstrates the reading proficiency in the school samples serving kindergarten through fifth grade. The initial sample had results which were very similar and therefore were difficult to compare, thus the researcher investigated the MCT results of another school. As the reader can see from Table 3, there is a drastic difference between schools 1B and 2B and schools 3B and 4B. The percentage of nonwhite students is similar between all four schools, indicating that ethnicity was not a crucial factor in the results of the MCTs. A major indicator of the differences in MCT scores was the SES percentage. In particular, the schools with the highest SES, the higher percentage of impoverished students, performed drastically lower than the schools with a lower SES. This has been a consistent trend over the past three years in all the schools in the sample. The FTE was seventeen for all except one of the four schools. This could indicate that the higher students-per-teacher ratio did not have an influence on the MCT reading results. Table 3 Reading Averages for K-5 Schools Grades 2 & 3. Reading Impoverished Ethnicity Three Year FTE Average Students (SES) nonwhite Average ______________________________________________________________________ 2nd 3rd 2nd 3rd _____________ ____________ School 1B 91 95 53 54 ~91 97 17 School 2B 93 96 57 53 95 97 17 School 3B 67 77 99 52 ~70 81 15 School 4B 69 77 91 53 ~69 ~72 17 ______________________________________________________________________ Note. The state second grade reading average for Mississippi in 2005 was eighty-eight percent. The third grade reading average for Mississippi was eighty-four percent.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Case Study Question Answering Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Case Study Question Answering - Essay Example All these strategies by the school head should principally focus on student learning, by providing institutional and instructional leadership (Brown, 2010, p. 5). Mrs. Huda faces an enormous task in her new capacity as a high school headmistress for a new school. Mrs. Huda possesses hardworking and intelligent characteristics that came out clearly throughout her career and studies. She has a strong personality, serious about her duties, excellent and shows perseverance. After her studies, Mrs. Huda worked as a mathematics teacher. Because of her successes in her profession, she gained promotion within 7 years to a secondary school headmistress. She worked tirelessly as a headmistress, and after four years, her achievements were noticeable. The ministry and the educational zone took pride of her hard work. In her fifth year as school head, she was transferred to another school by her superiors who aimed at placing an experienced and hardworking headmistress as the school head. She ass umed her responsibility and functions in her new school with motivation and enthusiasm. However, as she went about her duties with strictness and highhandedness, some of the teachers disliked her leadership style, and they brought it up with the education zone and the ministry. These teachers accused the headmistress of imposing her views, scolding them and being impolite and cruel with her words. They also accused her of constantly changing administrative demands, being bossy and not considering the teachers social needs (Al-Waqfi, & Forstenlechner, 2009, p.2). If I were Mrs. Huda, acting as a school head, I would act appropriately to administrative issues arising in my school as highlighted in each of the following situations. When It Comes To My Knowledge That I Will Be Transferred To a New School During the school holiday, I would make an inquiry about the new school, students and faculty. I would also inquire about the parents and the culture of the school. I would make an asse ssment of the school and have clear goals and expectations. This assessment would establish what needs assessment, and the people to look up to for feedback. This assessment that is reliable and valid will then be linked to research-based standards. The data collected is vital in developing a holistic approach and view of the school performance and expectations. Making an inquiry about the school is necessary because it helps in developing a comprehensive plan for changing issues that need address (Claudet, 2007, p. 7). During The First Meeting with the Administrative Staff in the New School During the first meeting with the teaching and administrative staff, it is crucial to first highlight the issues that need change. I will introduce the assessment to the staff and press to them the need for addressing the issues (Claudet, 2007, p. 9). During this meeting, I will also announce my administrative policies, focused on improving the school. The staffs need to know that the policies n eed fast implementation and absolute commitment. I will also introduce clear expectations on the purpose and goals of the policies I intend to institute in the school. The easy-to-understand and explicit expectations and goals intend to provide a transparent environment for running the school (Ebmier, 2004, p. 7). When I Notice the Frequent Absence of Employees It is vital to investigate reasons for teacher’s absence from school. Then from this investigation, I would

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Limitiations of Servant Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Limitiations of Servant Leadership - Essay Example However, oftentimes, example alone is not effective in realizing the change that the leader should seek to evoke (Zhang et al, 2012). As such, the five determinants of effective power exemplification are enumerated upon as the use and application of the following: coercive, reward, legitimate, referent, expert, and informational. Whereas the servant leader can appropriately integrate degrees of reward, legitimate, expert, and informational, he/she is completely unable to draw upon the reservoir of power that comes from coercive and in large degree from referent power (Russell, 2012). As such, this represents a clear and measurable shortcoming in that the servant leader is not able to exercise the full extent of his/her power and leadership over the shareholders he/she integrates with (Tidball, 2012). Although such an approach has verifiable and measurable advantages with regards to its ability to win over the hearts and minds of those engaged within such a framework, it is, like many theories, unable to speak to all of the necessary determinants of leadership and power that present themselves. Zhang, H., Kwong Kwan, H., Everett, A. M., & Jian, Z. (2012). Servant leadership, organizational identification, and work-to-family enrichment: The moderating role of work climate for sharing family concerns. Human Resource Management, 51(5), 747-767.

Rohlinger Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Rohlinger - Essay Example Rohlinger is a very interesting piece especially due to the sexualized men images that are used to portray the economic state and the way they are designed to appeal the liberated women.Unlike in men, there is much contention on the advertising using women’ erotic images arguing that the message sent is not good. Many people do not resist the use of men’ erotic images in advertising. I am still fascinated by the theory that liberated women mean strong independent women as indicated in the piece of work. The target audience is important in the setting of such an advert and I feel that the sales would not surge up if the audience targeted is in a relationship. I also noted with much interest the role played by ‘gender roles’ in making of advertisements. In setting a cologne advert it was important noting the way men are made vulnerable and so they get the importance of owning the cologne.However, from my own point of view, I do not think that the adverts made using the erotic images can really coerce me to buy something. Say an advert for a burger, even if made by a sexy lady, that does not mean that I will go and buy it. Ladies like dolls and manufacturers have taken that as a good platform to make great sales. This way you find that even as age advances the ladies still remain glued to their dolls and having the real attachment with them. The question that arises is whether the manufacturers really care more than the sales they make from the same.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Team work Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Team work - Essay Example An important element of human nature is that every individual has own opinions and independent methods of working. Every individual wants importance, power, authority and control over other. However, the teamwork emphasises on sharing of opinions, ideas, experiences, rewards and punishments. Cohesive efforts and collaborative knowledge brings success to any organisation and healthy team environment. Training, co-training, and workshops are conducted by employer to equip their employees with necessary skills required for teamwork. The necessary information, resources and materials should be exchanged with teammates. The interdependence and dynamic interactions among the team members plays an important role to adopt certain strategy to complete a particular project. Team success can be achieved through positive outcome of series of events and coordination of series of tasks. In order for teamwork culture to succeed, some aspects of teamwork like motivation, leadership, and open communi cation plays major role. All these factors interact with each other and influence the overall excellence of the organisation (Nadjiwon-Foster 2002). When organisation adopts flat structure by eliminating many middle-level management positions, leadership plays an innovative role at all levels. The functional and legitimate behaviour of leader influences his teammates (Barker 1996). The leader inspires other team members to behave and perform in a certain way. The formal and informal forms of his influence help in building flexible, yet successful organisation with shared vision. When anybody in the team has disruptive influence on the other teammates and consequently impairing the team’s objectives, leader must take immediate action in the form of warnings or punishments. The person should be made aware of aftereffects of his behaviour. The leader has to handle varied personalities having different temperaments, cultures,

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Uninsured and Ill, A Woman is Forced to Ration Her Care Essay

Uninsured and Ill, A Woman is Forced to Ration Her Care - Essay Example Kaur, a year old lady who has suffered from glaucoma since she was a child. Hailing from a poor background, we see how her family struggled to take her to an optometrist who through and through prescribed stronger and stronger spectacles. Now a grown, married lady her illness is a crucial problem to her day to day work. Ms. Kaurs access to care for her eye condition has been affected by many situations. Ms. Kaur works in Manhattan newsstand, at her husband’s uncle, she makes $6 an hour, and she works from 6 am to 3 pm without lunch break for seven days a week. In her health condition, she uses glasses to see well. Her annual income when calculate sums up to $16000 per year. This amount does not qualify her or Medicaid or any other government health program for the poor. Occasionally she experiences eye throbbing pain that require medical attention. Her visits to the New York eye and ear infirmary, where she has been treated for glaucoma on and off since 1999, leave her in debt and having exhausted her earnings on medication and other necessities Ms. Kaur, sometimes avoids regular doctor visits. On many occasions, Ms. Kaur acts as her own physician and druggist though it is said that, with lack of professional attention, she may wind up causing a problem in her other eye. The absence of a regular doctor to examine her condition has also been seen as a barrier since she does not receive the free samples that many patients enjoy with regular doctors. A spokes’ woman for allergen explained that pharmaceutical companies have free drug programs for the poor. Ignorance is another barrier to Ms. Kaur health access the fact that she lacks a source of information about the readily available insurance programs for the poor, company programs for the uninsured this would have enabled her to receive xalatans for at least 6 months. Ms. Klau is also faced with cultural barriers, culturally a young woman in India was not allowed to work to make

Monday, September 23, 2019

Sara Lee Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Sara Lee - Coursework Example Sara Lee also employs 137,000 persons worldwide. Key initiatives regarding manufacturing and quality processes need a higher level of reliability across every bakery, whereas an apparent business objective, constancy across each field operation brings considerable challenges. Challenges: â€Å"In The Netherlands, the Shop Account Managers of Sara Lee International keep in close contact with their retail channels. Due to the competitive nature of the retail market, it is of the utmost importance that the sales force is supported with a customer relationship management solution which is agile and responds to their requirements† (Lee, 2007). Retrenchment Strategy Assessment: Subsequent to Sara Lee’s retrenchment, the business is capable to give attention to its food service, food and beverage and worldwide businesses. Sara Lee’s key aims for its remaining business are to give attention to customer requirements and operating excellence, and at the same time in generating a physically powerful brand through wide modernizations and competitive pricing. The business successfully employs its retail meats, by selling them to its foodservice clientele. Its meat business has enlarged in sales and operating revenue, while professionally it has benefited by modernizations in grocery items. These modernizations boosted sales over $100 million, even while its core products’ sales were flat. The business holds 20% market share in a rising industry of approximately $10 billion. Sara Lee is one of the most significant market leaders in North America in retail breads. Sara Lee has positioned itself in mounting divisions and stalling unconnected segm ents in its body care product and household lines. These divisions function separately from core food items of Sara Lee’s businesses. The products of Sara Lee comprise bakery, household items, and beverage body care brands etc. Majority of the sales segment of sales is made in the western part of Europe. Sara Lee has a 9%market share of coffee, making it the second highest on earth. Its sales are exceed $1.7 billion, with the introduction of the most excellent selling coffee invention in Europe. While the continent has very strong needs for specialty coffees in that area, Sara Lee altered its most excellent selling coffee pans to dish up espresso and cappuccino drinks. The bakery line for the business has not been as flourishing throughout Europe. Customers choose extremely fresh-baked bread; on the other hand, Sara Lee can only offer packaged bread. While packaged bread merely creates 12% of the bread in market situation, it is expected to enlarge to 25% by 2015. Sara Leeâ⠂¬â„¢s bread also has been flourishing in Spain, while, where it dominates the nations with a 54 % market share. Sara Lee is at present not in an attractive market situation but if increase the packaged bread it may be capable to capture a huge market share. While it offers low-calorie food and desserts to its clientele, Sara Lee has met the requirements of its clientele and captured a bigger market share. Sara Lee’s holds the number one brand name of product Kiwi, shoe polish, which accumulates a worldwide market share of around 63%. And also its shoe polish reports for approximately 16% of the unit’s sales. Although Sara Lee’s has the leading brand of shower, the market is gradually rising at 1%. This averts the business from taking benefit of potential incomes in the market. The company possess almost 28% market share in the production

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Peace-Building and Community Development in Uganda Essay Example for Free

Peace-Building and Community Development in Uganda Essay Community development is a multi-faceted activity that has different ends. It also has different requirements depending on the needs of people inside the community. Development can be achieved through sustaining small and medium businesses, ensuring education for all, managing inclusion and diversity, keeping peace and order, and creating comprehensive disaster management. Through these, a community like Uganda can be sustainable. In Uganda, the dehumanizing aspects of slavery in the South and racial discrimination in the North are more than just the beatings, but also the parting of children from their mothers, the denial of education, and the sexual abuses of slave masters (Davis, 2004). The civilization that developed in Uganda reflected the variety and contrasts found on the continent. The peoples of Uganda differ greatly in language, customs, and appearance. The geography of this huge continent also shows sharp contrasts. Along the Nile River, which flows from the tropical forests of Central Uganda through the deserts of the north, several early civilizations developed. One of the most influential regions was Sahara. Sahara’s political, economic, and cultural influence had an effect on the history of other kingdoms. Later, empires based on trade grew up in the region of Sahara (Davis, 2004). Patterns of settlement and trade were influenced by the varied climates and natural sources of the Uganda continent. The hottest and wettest regions of the continent are near the equator, in the basin of the Congo River. Heavy rainfall and warm humid air encourage the growth of lush rain forest. Near the edge of the rainforest is the savanna, an open grassland dotted with shrubs and scattered clumps of trees. The savannas provide land for farming and herding. These grasslands are also home of Uganda great herds of wild animals, gazelles, giraffes, wildebeests, zebras, lions, and elephants (Davis, 2004). Racism in Uganda has been associated with reduced spirits, lower efficiency and a greater probability to experience terrible stress and nonappearance in the major activities in a community. People who go through racism speak of having feeling of timidity or letdown and lowered levels of self-esteem. Minorities who sense that their identity and culture are not cherished may also live through lowered levels of self-confidence and self-respect and think that they have are not welcome in a neighborhood or community. This mindset may bring about a feeling of denunciation of their own values, language, and ultimately their culture, and an ensuing loss of individuality (Hooks, 1994). In Uganda, the ways of thinking of people concerning cultural miscellany of their communes differ extensively. Amongst a number of minorities, there is a devotion to a deepened insight into cultural diversity and multiculturalism. Some â€Å"mainstream† people are anxious about variations and sense antipathy towards people of color. If the person of color is suffering discrimination of any sort, he or she may feel forlorn and miserable. He or she may also attempt to evade incidents where racist activities could happen, and pretend to be unwell or be anxious of deserting their homes (Kressel, 2001). In some nations, significant segments of the population reject coexistence with minorities in equal terms. These minorities have faced discrimination in such areas as housing, education, and employment. Although no scientific proof supports racist claims, racism is widespread and has caused major problems throughout the world. Racism is most often used to justify the creation of political or economic systems that encourage or maintain the domination of one racial group over another. Such beliefs were long used to rationalize the enslavement and persecution of people viewed as inferior (Stoessinger, 2002). Throughout history there have been persecutions and atrocities that can be described as cases of genocide. The Russian pogroms (persecutions of the Jews) during the late 1800s and early 1900s were an example of genocide. During World War II, the Germans practiced genocide. They killed about six million European Jews. Victims of the Holocaust went through dehumanization simply to make the killing of others psychologically easy for the Nazis. Many victims of the Holocaust suffered from various experiments which eventually led to the death. Some of the experiments were things such as: sun lamp, internal irrigation, hot bath, warming by body heat, hypothermia, among others (Clemens and Purcell, 1999). In recent years a debate has raged over the question of whether opportunities for black economic advancement are more affected by race or class position. Sociologist William Wilson believes that racial discrimination has become less important than social class in influencing the life chances of black Americans (Hinkle, 2004). He says that civil rights legislation and affirmative action programs have substantially lifted the cap historically imposed on black social mobility by segregation, resulting in greater educational, income, and occupational differentiation: Blacks with good educational backgrounds and job skills rapidly moved into the American middle class; blacks with limited educations and job skills became the victims of dehumanization and welfare dependency. Now poor urban blacks find themselves relegated to all-black neighborhoods where they are further dehumanized and socially isolated from mainstream American life (Zanden, 1993). According to Maiese (2003), the United Nations defined peace-building as an interplay of â€Å"capacity building, reconciliation, and societal transformation†. For other organizations, the short-term goals are more evident; peace-building revolves around promoting peace in an immediate situation. The United Nations drew up an international convention in 1948 that made genocide a crime. On Dec. 9, 1948, the United Nations passed the Genocide Convention, which was designed to overcome the claims of Nuremberg defendants that they had violated no law. The convention made genocide a crime. The next day, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Fifty years later, in 1998, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda became the first international court to pass a guilty verdict for the crime of genocide. The verdict related to crimes committed during the 1994 conflict in Rwanda (Kim, 2004). In 1999, there was already a convention, called the Geneva Spiritual Appeal, which made history in collecting in one venue the Catholics, the Jewish, the Buddhists, the Muslims, the Protestants, and the Orthodox Christians. Then again, there remain Christians, Animists, Muslims in conflict in Nigeria; Christian-Muslim discord still abounds some parts in Asia as Indonesia and the Philippines; Buddhists and the minority population of the Hindus Tamils are at odds in Sri Lanka; and incredibly, Animists and Witches are cursing each other in Uganda (Reich, 1998). Sometimes, it is appropriate to entitle these conflicts nationalist ones, because they impact on the endeavors to build nation-states, in which the majority gets the state. More like the winning territory takes over or designs the administration. Defining such a nation is typically by linguistic or religious yardsticks. Hence, we have the Ugandans in the continent of Africa singled out as the inferiors by tongue and by faith, and Germans differ from the French by their verbal and non-verbal communication (Carter, Gwendolen, and Herz, 1991). Perhaps theres a tendency of people growing to be defensive about their identity if they sense that it is under cordon. There is really not a single ultimate peace resolution plan that can referee the unrest. Attempts had been made like the 1999 Convention but the conflict is not exclusively attributable to spiritual diversity alone. It may be distributed among ethnic feuds, religion-based worldviews, economic modifications, and political coalitions, among several others (Carter, Gwendolen, and Herz, 1991). On having the United Nations’ enforcement of globalized paradigms, they would need to try harder. Peculiarities factor in on the extent of their reception. If the countrys fragile, they are more likely to get involved. If the countrys sturdy, they are more likely to lag behind and perform diplomatically around the edges. The key is not to establish globalized benchmarks but to develop local, internal avowals (Stoessinger, 2002). They said there is only one Bible and a million interpretations. But there is a single quotation in it that speaks of harmony: a house divided against itself cannot stand. Proclaiming a house partitioned to be a condominium cannot be expected to work out when many of the occupiers want instead to demolish the edifice entirely and put up their own, unattached houses. Speaking of houses, local religious sects could construct and ring a Peace Bell at the beginning and end of their spiritual observation. Ugandan victims could ask their municipality to formally declare their observance of the day (Kim, 2004). It would also be certainly wise for any intercontinental organizations to use workforce from countries that went through related experiences, rather then using the abstract approach brought by peacekeeping squads from Western nations to intervene in Uganda. One specific strategy possibly is to have this staff encourage the people inviting other faith traditions to join them in a prayer service for peace in Uganda (Carter, Gwendolen, and Herz, 1991). International treaties should make it easier for local organizations to get concerned in the region of Uganda where genocide is concentrated without misplacing valuable time as they wait for the pronouncement of the United Nations Security Council, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, or the Organization of African Unity (Reich, 1998). But it should always be made a point that the auxiliary time is spent on deepening interfaith commitments to dialogue and cooperation for promoting peace. In the 1990s, Jewish groups pressured those who had profited from the Holocaust to compensate Holocaust victims or their descendants. Groups that paid reparations included the German government, certain Swiss banks, and some German companies (Clemens and Purcell, 1999). In the country Uganda, Paul Rusesabagina, the hotel manager played the hero in the lives of thousands having different cultural backgrounds. In the middle of European colonization in Rwanda, Paul made an uncompromising initiative to communicate with the most relevant redeemers from the camp of Brussels’ headquarters. This way, he succeeded in playing the peacekeeper among the threatened people he hid in their hotel (Carter, Gwendolen, and Herz, 1991). The United Nations also played an indispensable role in Uganda. Led by Col. Oliver, the organization gets to know what is actually happening but not to make contingent actions and resolutions to put a stop to genocidal cases that mete out Rwanda. He stood the middleman between the U. N. superiors and the people under the wings of Paul Rusesabagina (Carter, Gwendolen, and Herz, 1991). However, it was also evident that the situation could have gone smarter if the likes of Paul Rusesabagina and Col. Oliver were given ample attention or at the very least, not ignored. Apart from the United Nations, a multitude of support and private-owned groups advocate against dehumanization and as such, campaign for a zero-dehumanized world and for a healing process to start with (Stoessinger, 2002). For instance, Interact Worldwide is an advocacy-driven virtual institution with the purpose of building support for and implement programmes, which enable marginalized people to fulfill their rights to sexual and reproductive health. Redefining Progress works with a broad array of partners to shift the economy and public policy towards sustainability; that they can measure the real state of a country’s economy, our environment, and social justice with tools like the genuine progress indicator and the ecological footprint; that they design policies to shift behavior in these three domains towards sustainability; and that they promote and create new frameworks to replace the ones that are taking us away from long-term social, economic, and environmental health. Other popular organizations include The Family Alliance to Stop Abuse and Neglect, National Down Syndrome Congress, Resources for Children of Holocaust Survivors, Amnesty International, Freedom House, Human Rights Watch, Reebok Human Rights, among many others (Carter, Gwendolen, and Herz, 1991). Prejudice provides for the safe release of hostile and aggressive impulses that are culturally tabooed within other social contexts. By channeling hostilities from within family, occupational, and other crucial settings onto permissible targets, the stability of existing social structures may be promoted. This is the well-known scapegoating mechanism, another common method to dehumanize (Zanden, 1993). In Uganda, scapegoating resulted in the inhuman treatment of Ugandan tribes like Tutsi. Bound by his duty-based ethics, Paul Rusesabagina could be pictured having utter, intrinsic moral commitments to some external source to carry out certain actions, notwithstanding his particular situation and personal goals (Carter, Gwendolen, and Herz, 1991). The ways of thinking of people concerning cultural miscellany of their communes differ extensively be it in Rwanda or in some other place in the world. Amongst a number of minorities, there is a devotion to a deepened insight into cultural diversity and multiculturalism. Some â€Å"mainstream† people are anxious about variations and sense antipathy towards people of color. If the person of color is suffering discrimination of any sort, he or she may feel forlorn and miserable. But with Paul Rusesabagina around, the people kept safe in Uganda were saved not only from the harm of genocide but from the deadly bias posed against them by the larger society that is morally wrecked and uncharitable (Carter, Gwendolen, and Herz, 1991). An inherent debate has raged over the question of whether opportunities for black economic advancement are more affected by race or class position. Some believe that racial discrimination has become less important than social class in influencing the life chances of Ugandans. Civil rights legislation and affirmative action programs have substantially lifted the cap historically imposed on black social mobility by segregation, resulting in greater educational, income, and occupational differentiation: Blacks with good educational backgrounds and job skills rapidly moved into the middle class; blacks with limited educations and job skills became the victims of dehumanization and welfare dependency. Now poor urban blacks find themselves relegated to all-black neighborhoods where they are further dehumanized and socially isolated from mainstream Ugandan life (Hooks, 1994). The risk is that when chauvinistic behaviors and attitudes are allowed to go unimpeded in any environment, a climate cultivates which sees these incidents as natural and so permits racism to become deep-rooted. Whereas not many complaints are collected every year, this should not be compared to a low frequency of racist incidence. Inadequate understanding of legislation, fear or apprehension on the part of victimized minorities to disclose racist activities or disinclination by parents to engage in legal amends are factors that may thwart the conveyance of official complaints. As well, formal treatments for grievances of racism are not constantly suitable, with arbitration usually being considered as a preferable substitute (Kim, 2004). Racism has been a steady problem in Uganda all through time. Other forms of racism are, perhaps, less obvious. The hierarchical structure, academic elitism, and the whole way of life of mainstream society are directly opposed to cultural values and world views. How all this conflict is experienced by people of color can only be explained adequately by the citizens of the society themselves; it will be different depending on their past experience and even non-existent for others, but the suppression of the values and way of life of the mainstream society will adversely affect everyone because racism against these people of color eats at the hearts of the dominating as well as the dominated people (Hinkle, 2004). Peace-building can concentrate on resolving current issues between constituents. It involves moderating by authorities or other members of the community to maintain understanding between parties. On the other hand, it is also creating a society where the constituents are educated and transformed so that they do not only know peace but also lives peace. In these terms, education plays an integral role. This creates a community which is not only dependent on intermediaries but with self-regulation of peace as well. In the end, a community filled with peace-loving citizens is a community where peace has been built (Stoessinger, 2002). Personally, if I were a member of a certain low-income urban neighborhood similar in nature in Uganda, I would offer my full knowledge of the end and the means to achieve it. As part of the will for a â€Å"sense of community,† I will take the initiative to conform to shared leadership or become servant leaders. After all, a leader providing positive reinforcement is a leader creating a positive climate and peace-loving attitude all over a community. So long as there will be provision of opportunities that allow me to exercise responsibility and creativity in our common endeavor, my active participation would include extensive information dissemination, be it online or via available physical infrastructures, and active civic participation.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Australian indigenous world views and accounting

Australian indigenous world views and accounting This paper summarizes the article titled The issue of Australian indigenous world-views and accounting written by Susan Greer and Chris Patel (2000). Also critically review the article and compare it with other articles those discuss the same idea and focus on the same issue. As any research area and especially in social sciences, the difficulty and the complex of the topic should be taken as a point of departure for exploring and studying the topic as well as the importance of the topic. The paper was structured into eight sections as following: an introduction; limitations of Hofstedes cultural taxonomy; yin and yang values framework; core Australian indigenous cultural values; work-related values; land-related values; the meaning of native title and concluding comments. The purpose of the paper is to provide evidence of cultural differences between indigenous Australian values and the Western capitalist values implicit in the language of accounting and accountabilityp1 as the authors believe that although great efforts have been made on the cross-cultural accounting research, the mainstream cross-cultural accounting research has failed to address two main issues: First: the mainstream research of cross-cultural accounting focused on the impact of culture on the accounting systems but not the influence of accounting on societal values. Second: the cultural differences within countries have been omitted. The article tries to study this issue and fill the knowledge gap in this field, also presents the cultural norms and values among the indigenous and non-indigenous peoples within Australia p 308. Specifically, the study aims to demonstrate that Australian indigenous cultures embody core values that conflict with the values encapsulated within Western systems of accounting and accountability. p308 Article Summary The study illuminates the differences between indigenous Australian peoples cultural values and Western capitalist values appears in language of accounting that related to work and land. Choosing the conceptions of work and land were based on two reasons, first the previous studies which have shown the importance of the work related values and differences between cultures. Second, the recent introduction of native title into property law granted the Australian indigenous conception of land some legal recognition alongside other forms of property rights p309 the authors criticize Hofsteds cultural taxonomy as they believe in its limitations, they refer to a number of limitations as: this approach overly simplistic as it reflects the values of the politically and socially advantaged groups within countries, also it does not include the minorities in the sample such as indigenous peoples, moreover, it fails to address the complexity of culture p310 Because of these limitations mentioned above, the authors adopt another suitable approach which they believe it is the appropriate one for such a study. The alternative used approach is Yin and Yang values framework, the authors believe that A useful perspective for examining the cultural values and conceptions of reality reflected and socially reproduced by accounting, is that of the universal masculine or yang and the universal feminine or yin (Hines, 1992, p. 318).as some writers (Hines 1992) showed that the language of accounting preferences yang values, such as quantification, objectivity, efficiency, productivity, reason, and logic, and in doing so, silences or excludes those values associated with the universal feminine or yin, such as relationships, nurturing, experience, and intuition p310 The authors address the usefulness of the adoption of this value framework to their study in two primary reasons. The first reason is because of the evidence of unique Australian indigenous cultural values provided from a large collection of anthropological, sociological and pedagogical literature. Secondly, the increasing emphasis of the Australian indigenous people s on cultural values and traditions. Core Australian indigenous cultural values In this section, authors try to introduce the differences in cultural values within the indigenous Australian peoples or (the yin core values). According to the authors, The whole community is classified into specific relationships with each member (Crawford, 1989). For example, the Pitjantjatjara people of Central Australia gave Europeans kinship terms à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. The Yolngu of the Northern Territory are also known to assign positions within the domain of Yolngu kinship to non-Aboriginal people with whom they have more than superficial or brief contact à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. Thus for many indigenous peoples, kin positions constitute the basic datum of social identity. p 313 Also authors state that sharing and relatedness values are central to these indigenous societies especially to Aboriginal society. In the next sections the authors focus on two groups of value taking them as examples, these groups of values, according to the authors, are aligned to yin values. Work-related values In this section the work-related values of indigenous peoples are presented as yin values, which are clearly reflected in the indigenous attitudes to work, consequently are in contrast with yang values. Some examples was given in support to this issue the strength and nature of obligatory relationships and the web of sharing within kinship networks are often acknowledged as a key determinant of the success or failure of indigenous enterprises. Yet, governments at the state and federal levels and indigenous funding bodies have consistently ignored this factor. Instead, indigenous organisations and communities have been increasingly submitted to financial accounting controls and measures of financial accountability and compliance which prioritise yang values that are in direct conflict with the core Australian indigenous values of sharing and relatedness. p 316 Land-related values Descriptions of how the land is considered by indigenous peoples in Australia can be found under this section where the authors provide evidences on how land values for these indigenous are different to accounting and accountability systems in the Western capitalist environment. The authors state that The earth is considered the source of all life and, as such, the indigenous peoples are obligated to look after the earth, so that the earth will in turn provide for them p 318 According to the authors the link between these peoples and land is much deeper than just an economic property, as it can be read that In Australian indigenous culture it is the spiritual link to the land that is all-pervasive. The land is the source of the Dreamings, the source of identity and the foundation principle of land rights in indigenous culture is not one of individual proprietary rights, rather it is relationships p 319 The meaning of native title Native title was identified in the article as inalienable right consisting of the laws, customs, practices and traditions of particular communities. As such, the rights under native title are limited to the indigenous community which observes those traditions, customs and practices. Native title does not equate with the estates, rights or interests in land which form the law of real property at common law . . . it is to be regarded as unique p 320 The indigenous consider it as an important part of their culture not as it appears in the Western accounting literature as: . The property; . The asset; . The economic resource; . The commodity; and . The natural capital. The loss of this title means loss of culture itself for these Australian indigenous peoples. Conclusion comments the article concludes with the mention of the failure of mainstream cross-cultural accounting research to include the norms and values of less advantage groups such as indigenous, also the article refers to the complexity of accounting and accountability to study such a subject as these social aspects are part of many other subjects as history, ideology, language and mythology. Moreover, the authors suggest to build on the work has been made by Hines (1992) and Broadbent (1995; 1998). Critical Reflections This section critically evaluates the work has been done by Greer S. and Patel C. (2000) by reviewing the used method and objectives achieved in the light of other works on the same topic. Strengths it is good attempt to bring such issues to the attention of accounting, some issues like the issue of accounting and indigenous, how they are effected by accounting and how accounting should benefits from their cultures for example in terms of environment and social responsibility. As Gallhofer et al (2000) think that it seems appropriate to speculate further upon how indigenous cultural principles might be reflected more generally in the context of impacting upon accounting p 397 The objectives of the article were clearly stated and strongly linked to the title. Also the abstract summaries and explains clearly the debate issue of the article and the limitations of the methods used before. The aims and objectives of the article were well addressed and The findings were well organized and reported objectively. More importantly, new approach was applied as alternative method to characterize the indigenous peoples cultural differences in terms of accounting and accountability. It can be said that the article was well written and sectioned in good order, also very clear literature review was introduced by descriptions of the related work has been done in the same field within discussions in different places in the article which, also number of good references were used in both method section and the development body. In my view, that would give a good opportunity to describe the contents of the article and make them more readable. Not to mention the number of examples was injected in different sections of the article to support the ideas included. Weaknesses Gallhofer and Chew state that (2000) We are particularly concerned to address the problem that non-indigenous researchers face when they write about issues concerning indigenous peoples and cultures p 258. As mentioned it could be a problematic issue that non-indigenous researchers can not reflect clearly the complexity of cultural and social elements and accounting in indigenous societies in general. At one point it could be said that the method used to gather the data for this article were clearly explained and the developments of the critical contextual analysis were well explained. On the other point, however, the reliability of the used texts is sometimes difficult to be measured. Also the scope of the study and the population used were not based on a clear approach. Hofsteds cultural taxonomy was criticized in the article because of its limitations; however, the method was employed as alternative approach (Yin and Yang value framework) has its own limitations too. At one point the used method is acceptable for determining the content and deliver broader understanding to the reader .however, it could be questionable if it is the appropriate method to explain and develop scientific accounting theory and result reliable outcomes as it is affected by other sciences such as language, history and politics. This makes the issue is more complicated and can not be studied without considering other elements, for instance, Jayasinghe and Dennis Thomas (2009) found that The findings imply that any form of rational transformations in indigenous accounting systems in local subaltern communities requires a phenomenological analysis of any prevailing and dominant patronage political systems. p 351 From personal point of view, hybrid Approach should be applied to study the topic including ethno-methodological approach. The article does not mention clearly how to improved the accounting theory and engage it with indigenous culture and practices, in personal view, the expected outcomes of studies not just general description to matters but also to give potential solutions. It also can be argued that the article does not show whereas the indigenous peoples welcome the western accounting and accountability systems or not, and if yes till which degree. In general, the article should have studied both sides of the relationship between the indigenous and the language of western accounting and how they affect each other rather than focusing on one side as the relationship is an interactive one. As it seems that the issue is more deep-rooted in the accounting field which requires studying the historical background of the matter. It is also arguable that although the authors arose the differences between cultures within the same country, they applied the comprehensiveness when they studied the indigenous and ignored the cultural differences between these indigenous peoples themselves, for instance Gallhofer et al (2000) believe that There are complex differences between the three groups of indigenous people and indeed between their different tribes. p 384 Questions Left to Answer The article raises issues and possibilities that should be focused on and questions need to be further explored; additional studies are needed to raise research possibilities beyond those identified and overcome method limitations. Conclusion In conclusion, the paper has promoted to the idea of providing evidence of differences between indigenous Australian values and the Western capitalist values in the accounting context. Some good cases have been presented with implementing a developed method in the field. Besides, several of good references have been used in order to develop the problem statement of the article, It could also be said that the yin and yang values framework which used in the paper has its limitation in terms of providing evidences of the problem studied. The conclusion was based on the findings from the critical contextual analysis used and the literature reviewed; also the recommendation was limited to a call for additional research in this area of research as some other researchers suggest (Gallhofer and Chew 2000). Overall, the study gives good contribution to knowledge in terms of the used method and the objectives, also the study would need to be linked to other works have been done on the same topic (Gallhofer, S., Chew, A. (2000), Gallhofer, S., el al (2000), Davie, S. (2000), Jayasinghe K. and Thomas D. (2009), to give better and broader understanding to the problem introduced in the mentioned article.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Types of Alternative Dispute Resolutions

Types of Alternative Dispute Resolutions Introduction- This factsheet is about the different types of Alternative dispute resolutions (ADR), including advantages and disadvantages for each of them. ADR is a method mostly used for civil cases to deal with legal conflicts and disputes that are resolved privately other than through hearing in the public courts. Binding is a decision of an agreement or promise involving an obligation that cannot be broken. For example, tribunals have a panel of independent people (judge) who will make a decision for them. Non-binding is where the decision of agreement or promise requires both of the parties to come to an agreement. For example, a verbal agreement is considered to be non-binding because there is no legal force. You basically dont have to commit to any agreement, it is optional. Types of Alternative dispute resolutions Tribunals- usually sit as panel, 2 of which are specialised in the dispute that is getting solved and one who us hearing the case and potentially is the judge. However, tribunals have limited power to impose fines and penalties or to award compensation and costs. More than that the parties agree on a non-binding decision- in other words the tribunals can give their own opinion on how to resolve the case but they cannot enforce both of the parties on a legal settlement or a solution. This is similar to a court without the ritual or formality. They are involved in a number of specialist tribunal which bear their name: Employment Tribunals, Immigration Tribunals, and Social Security Tribunals etc. There are many types of tribunals but they may be classed as two main types: administrative and domestic.   Ã‚   Administrative individual v state e.g. Social Security Appeal Tribunal, Immigration Tribunal and Mental Health Review Tribunals. Note: exceptions e.g. Employment tribunals and rent tribunals Domestic Tribunals often set up by professional bodies to deal with in-house- issues and apply rules within that body. E.g. Solicitors Disciplinary Tribunal, GMC, FA, GTC etc Advantages: Solving disputes using tribunals is quite cheap and cost effective as mostly expertise who are specialised in a certain field in civil law reduces the time needed and the cost of using a qualified judge. Disadvantages: Effectiveness Tribunals embrace many valuable assets in aiding the justice system. They are cost effective as tribunals do not charge a fee, and each party pays their own expenses compared to the courts where the loser pays for the legal fees of the winning party. Another way that tribunals are cost effective is the fact that there is no need for a specialized court house for cases to be heard. Tribunals are also less expense because members sitting on tribunal panels are cheaper to employ compared to judges and there is no need for legal representation. Mediation Mediation is Mediation is an effective way of resolving disputes without the need to go to court. It involves an independent third party a mediator who helps both sides come to an agreement. Reference from ( The role of the mediator is to help parties reach a solution to their problem and to arrive at a result that both parties are content to accept. Mediators avoids being biased, and are not favourable to one party when making judgements or giving guidance. They are basically responsible for developing effective communications and building compromise between the parties. The focus of a mediation meeting is to reach a common sense settlement agreeable to both parties in a case. Advantages: In Civil cases Mediation is quite simple and there are no complex rules therefore the case/dispute is solved efficiently there is a 3rd party involved, but have no active role i.e. no decision making therefore there is no determination of accountability, solution personalised to parties needs. As Parties are paying for mediation it encourages for them to settle to an agreement, because as they are paying for it they have more value for the ADR method they are using. This is also gives the parties are full participants and can express their own views and apprehensions, where in civil litigation the parties legal representative such as lawyers- are the only ones who represent their party unless the party takes the stand and is subject to question by the opposite advocate. The first advantage is that mediation is less costly than civil litigation for many reasons: Most mediators who specialise for example in construction charge by the hour rates and the mediation usually is completed in a short period of time between 1 to 2 days, this also saves time as litigation is more time-consuming. Preparation for mediation is far easier and simpler than is required to prepare for arbitration or litigation, this is because there is not a lot of paperwork needed. lawyers are not necessary but may participate at the request of a party, this makes their case more favourable as the would be a chance that one of the party who had a legal representative wins the case. However, If the parties choose to have a binding mediation, they will have a similar conclusiveness as binding arbitration offers. Which is without the formalities and costs associated with binding arbitration. In many cases, the mediation can be held at the home involved rather than needing to schedule a place/accommodation to visit and if needed, a separate arbitration hearing at a neutral location or litigation that must be held at a court of jurisdiction. In most instances, the mediator is experienced in the issues that are in dispute and can assist the parties in the reality of their opinions and positions, ultimately making the parties settle for an agreement. Lastly, the parties should not face court filing fees and its related expenses. Disadvantages: Even though there are normally no lawyers present at mediation, the agreement between the parties involved is legally binding in most judicial systems. Another disadvantage of mediation is that either party can withdraw from the proceedings at any time. Reference from ( overall mediation is very successful, so there is a very less chance for the parties not to settle and have some sort of agreement. Effectiveness Mediation may be particularly useful when parties have a relationship they want to maintain. For instance, when family members, neighbours, or business partners have a dispute, mediation may be the ADR process to use. Mediation is also effective when emotions are getting in the way of resolution. An effective mediator can hear the parties out and help them communicate with each other in an effective and non-destructive manner. However, Mediation may not be effective if one of the parties is unwilling to co-operate or compromise for an overall settlement. Mediation also may not be effective if one of the parties has a significant advantage in power over the other i.e. may have a solicitor supporting them with their case. Therefore, it may not be a good choice if the parties have a history of abuse or victimisation. Negotiation-is at the core of most Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). It has been defined as any form of direct or indirect communication where both of the parties come with an agreement. It involves inspecting the facts of a situation, showing both the common and opposing interests of the parties involved, and bargaining to resolve as many issues as possible. negotiation is done by both of the parties having no third party involved both them alone. The aim is to negotiate and settle their differences by the parties having to compromise for agreement whilst avoiding argument and dispute. reference Advantages: It is completely confidential mostly for those people who are going to dispute a civil case and it is the quickest method because if both of the parties come to an agreement then the case doesnt have to go to the courts or need other types of ADR. Negation is much cheaper than taking the case to the court, meaning the parties wouldnt have to pay for lawyers or solicitors or the expenses of a 3rd party. Lastly it allows the parties flexibility in the terms of settlement such as negotiating money or compensation and potentially doesnt cost anything at all. However, no party is required to participate in a negotiation. The parties are free to accept or discard the outcome of negotiations and can withdraw at any point during the process. Also The parties are free to adopt whatever rules they choose, if any. Generally, they will agree on issues such as the subject matter, timing and location of negotiations. Further matters such as confidentiality, the number of negotiating sessions the p arties commit to, and which documents may be used, can also be addressed. Reference from Disadvantages: If the parties cant resolve their problems on their own, their problem will continue unsettled and the parties must consider another process for resolution. This is a disadvantage because cost and expense would occur for both of the parties, and this is very unfair for people or group that are less fortunate to fun for other ADRs. another disadvantage is that, the parties themselves have to research laws and analyse their disputes amongst themselves by representing facts and evidence without legal representatives or 3rd parties. Effectiveness In my opinion negotiation is effective for very minor civil cases such as the tenant has not paid rent for 4 months. Both of the parties can negotiate Arbitration -in such an instance the courts will refuse to hear your claim until arbitration. In the process it may state how arbitration will proceed e.g. date time, venue etc. arbitration s free but the arbitrator will charge fee. An arbitrator essentially acts as a judge would if the case went to the court. The arbitrator will hear the dispute and gather evidence presented by the parties involved and will make a binding decision. The arbitrator essentially acts as a judge would if the case went to court. The arbitrator will hear arguments and evidence presented by the parties involved in the dispute and will make a binding decision to resolve the disagreement. Advantages Arbitration, involves two parties in a dispute who agree to work with a disinterested third party in an attempt to resolve the dispute privately. Arbitration process is fairly quick. Once an arbitrator is selected, the case can be heard immediately. Disadvantages Effectiveness Arbitration is best for cases where the parties want another person to decide the outcome of their dispute for them but would like to avoid the formality, time, and expense of a trial. It may also be appropriate for complex matters where the parties want a decision-maker who has training or experience that are specialist in the subject matter of the dispute. On the other hand, If parties want to retain control over how their dispute is resolved, arbitration, particularly binding arbitration, is not appropriate. In binding arbitration, the parties generally cannot appeal the arbitrators award, even if it is not supported by the evidence or the law. Even in nonbinding arbitration, if a party requests a trial and does not receive a more favourable result at trial than in arbitration, there may be penalties Conciliation Comparable to mediation because there is a third party involved. However, it plays a more active role, e.g. make suggestions on settlement and/ or suggestions on any compromises that should be made within the parties disputes. At some point during the conciliation, the conciliator will be asked by the parties to offer a non-binding settlement proposal. This means that the agreement isnt compulsory and can be denied by the parties if they wish not to settle. Advantages: Conciliation allows the parties to have flexibility as they can choose their own timing and language, place, structure and content of the conciliation proceedings whereas the court gives you their own place, timing and the structure of content for example- whatever the date of the hearings, the party would have to be present there and then. As a conciliator you do not need a professional background i.e. any qualifications. Both conciliation is analytical and make a fair judgement. However, the process for conciliation is not legally binding so both of the parties do not have to negotiate a settlement. On the other hand, if the parties where solving their disputes in the court, it would be a process that is legally binding so the judges will decide on the settlement and they both have to agree with it. Disadvantages: Effectiveness Conclusion

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Internet Crimes :: essays research papers

The new discipline of computing and the sciences that depend upon it have led the way in making space for women's participation on an equal basis. That was in some ways true for Grace Murray Hopper, and it is all the more true for women today because of Hopper's work. Grace Brewster Murray graduated from Vassar with a B.A. in mathematics in 1928 and worked under algebraist Oystein Ore at Yale for her M.A. (1930) and Ph.D. (1934). She married Vincent Foster Hopper, an educator, in 1930 and began teaching mathematics at Vassar in 1931. She had achieved the rank of associate professor in 1941 when she won a faculty fellowship for study at New York University's Courant Institute for Mathematics. Hopper had come from a family with military traditions, thus it was not surprising to anyone when she resigned her Vassar post to join the Navy WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service) in December 1943. She was commissioned a lieutenant in July 1944 and reported to the Bureau of Ord nance Computation Project at Harvard University, where she was the third person to join the research team of professor (and Naval Reserve lieutenant) Howard H. Aiken. She recalled that he greeted her with the words, "Where the hell have you been?" and pointed to his electromechanical Mark I computing machine, saying "Here, compute the coefficients of the arc tangent series by next Thursday." Hopper plunged in and learned to program the machine, putting together a 500-page Manual of Operations for the Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator in which she outlined the fundamental operating principles of computing machines. By the end of World War II in 1945, Hopper was working on the Mark II version of the machine. Although her marriage was dissolved at this point, and though she had no children, she did not resume her maiden name. Hopper was appointed to the Harvard faculty as a research fellow, and in 1949 she joined the newly formed Eckert-Mauchly Corporation. H opper never again held only one job at a time. She remained associated with Eckert-Mauchly and its successors (Remington-Rand, Sperry-Rand, and Univac) until her official "retirement" in 1971. Her work took her back and forth among institutions in the military, private industry, business, and academe. In December 1983 she was promoted to commodore in a ceremony at the White House. When the post of commodore was merged with that of rear admiral, two years later, she became Admiral Hopper.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Introducing New Software and Hardware :: Sales Consumerism Technology Essays

Introducing New Software and Hardware ICT Coursework-Spreadsheet Identify: Mr Smith, who is the owner of JC SPORTS, has discovered three main problems with his shop's basketball sales, these were due to: 1. The old-fashioned manual systems in his company. (Manual system). 2. The lack of interest for the latest new products on the market. (Marketing system). 3. The lack of a new hardware & software systems. (Computer system). Surprisingly, because of poor product handling, out of all the sales in his sports and design shop, the amount of basketball sports goods sold dropped massively over the past six months. At the time, I happened to assist Mr Smith as he was recording down his sales. Mr Smith was not very clever when it came to using computers. He needed a quite a lot of helping out. Due to the fact that I was one of his best customers, Mr Smith then showed me his most baffling results that he recently found out. The problem was that Mr Smith was pretty old fashioned and used the ancient, long gone manual technology like the typewriter to sort out his business instead of using the modern day computer software and technology such as the word processor and the spreadsheet. Since I was compiling this project, I offered to help him solve this very problem by myself doing a series of analysis on the sales, marketing and systems later on in that very same week. It was a challenge. Mr Smith was very much obliged and gave me his sales report immediately. I also advised him to shape up and use the latest up-to-date, business & industrial technology around him and not use his very old, former technology. Later on at home, as I assessed the report, I took into consideration any possible alternative solutions and objectives of the following concerning a sales analysis, marketing analysis and a system analysis. These were ========== 1. Write a questionnaire: Write questionnaire in Microsoft Word. (For the customers- Customers will fill it in) 2. Do a survey: Plot survey results in Microsoft PowerPoint. (For the customers- Questionnaires will be sent out to customers as part of survey) 3. Enter all information and data into both Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. 4. Cut down prices: this will help by attracting customers who would like to buy the product at an affordable price. 5. Include deals: this is making special offers to customers that they will find hard to resist. 6. Advertise: this will help more and more people, customers and business associates know more about the product. 7. Introduce new appropriate hardware and software. Analyse: Continuing assessing my project, I conducted a feasibility study on

Tuesday, September 17, 2019


Indebtedness Today one can say it is near impossible to succeed without an education past the high school level. With universities knowing this the cost of attendance has raised drastically. Some may argue that taking out loans is well worth the long time debt that comes with it. Others may say loans are not something they would recommend and would rather pay out of pocket. Wells Fargo, Bank of America, and US Bank(who is one of the only banks award scholarships based of random picks) are just a few from of list of the top financial institutions to provide aid to students in America.Bank of America has implemented another company called Monster. They run a program that goes cross country to over 200 campuses and teach them about how to manage money and budget for necessities. This includes credit cards and other loans from Bank of America. This program is free to any student who wants the general knowledge and Dennis Morey states that â€Å"Bank of America is committed to students a nd their long term success†. Wells Fargo offers multiple pay back options and even allows students to have a cosigner just in case something isn’t working for them.They offer call centers and help lines that provide you with plans on paying back loans and also encourage you that loans are not bad and could be stepping stones to a better future. Institutions such as Chase try to help ones financial situation by only allowing them the amount of tuition minus other aid. This insures that no one student has accepted a bigger responsibility than can be handled. This keeps the amount of debt that they could have down to a more controllable amount.They also exercise payback right away plans. This keeps a student from having such a heavy burden once they are finished with school and have moved on to a life after studies. SunTrust bank takes a different approach. Through the process of getting a student loan they take you through the necessary steps of seeing if you qualify for any scholarships and grant money this helps reduce the initial amount of money needed to attend a college our university.After that they check to see if you qualify for federal loans that may not have any interest. This helps students in the long run because what they borrow is what they have to pay back nothing more is added on. Sources http://www. suntrusteducation. com/PayingForCollege/Students/UnderGraduate. html http://www. chasestudentloans. com/ https://www. wellsfargo. com/student/ http://newsroom. bankofamerica. com/press-release/consumer-banking/monster-and-bank-america-promote-smart-money-management-skills-among-

Monday, September 16, 2019

Promote Equality and Inclusion in Health

CU1532 PROMOTE EQUALITY AND INCLUSION IN HEALTH, SOCIAL CARE OR CHILDREN’S AND YOUNG PEOPLE’S SETTINGS Understand the importance of diversity, equality and inclusion Explain what is meant by diversity; equality; inclusion Diversity can be defined in many different ways. What does it mean to us? Diversity is a commitment to recognizing and appreciating the variety of characteristics that make individuals unique in an atmosphere that promotes and celebrates individual and collective achievement.Examples of these characteristics are: age; cognitive style; culture; disability (mental, learning, physical); economic background; education; ethnicity; gender identity; geographic background; language(s) spoken; marital/partnered status; physical appearance; political affiliation; race; religious beliefs; sexual orientation. Equality is ensuring individuals or groups of individuals are treated fairly and equally and no less favourably, specific to their needs, including areas of race, gender, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation and age.Inclusion at its simplest is ‘the state of being included’ but it is a bit more complicated than that†¦ It is used by disability rights activists to promote the idea that all people should be freely and openly accommodated without restrictions or limitations of any kind. Describe the potential effects of discrimination Physical effects: headaches, poor appetite, a change in eating habits, sleeplessness, loss/gain of weight, deterioration of health, bruises, ulcers, lack of personal hygiene and lack of energy.Emotional effects: low self-esteem, lack of confidence, feeling unwanted, insecurity, becoming withdrawn, depression/stress, anxiety, sudden change in behaviour, lack of co-operation and learned helplessness. Social effects: isolation, lack of friends, becoming withdrawn, unrecognized as an individual, feel like a stranger and inability to build relationships. the intellectual effects: res tricted access to education, poor performance in examinations, lack of achievements, poor job prospects, lack of skills, self-fulfilling prophecy, loss of motivation, lack of interest in anything and absence from work.Explain how inclusive practice promotes equality and supports diversity Inclusive practice is about the attitudes, approaches and strategies taken to ensure that people are not excluded or isolated. It means supporting diversity by accepting and welcoming people’s differences, and promoting equality by ensuring equal opportunities for all. Inclusive practice is best practice. Health and social care workers demonstrate inclusive practice by working in ways that recognise, respect, value and make the most of all aspects of diversity.Having a sound awareness of and responding sensitively to an individual’s diverse needs supports them in developing a sense of belonging, well-being and confidence in their identity and abilities. And it helps them to achieve th eir potential and take their rightful place in society. In addition, inclusive practice involves having an understanding of the disastrous impact that discrimination, inequality and social exclusion can have on an individual’s physical and mental health.Having such an understanding ensures appropriate, personalised care and support, thereby enabling an individual to develop self-respect and maintain a valued role in society. Because people who fail to support diversity or promote equality are usually entirely unaware of their attitudes and the impact of their behaviour, inclusive practice involves reflecting on and challenging one’s own prejudices, behaviours and work practices.It also involves challenging those of colleagues and other service providers, with a view to adapting ways of thinking and working and to changing services to build on good practice and to better support diversity and promote equality. Be able to work in an inclusive way Explain how legislation and codes of practice relating to equality, diversity and discrimination apply to own work role The UK has in place numerous pieces of legislation (laws), rules, regulations, guidance documents and statutory codes of practice, all of which are intended to promote diversity, ensure equality and end discrimination.In other words, they are in place to promote everyone’s right to fair and equal treatment, regardless of their differences. The Human Rights Act 1998. This covers many different types of discrimination, including some that are not covered by other discrimination laws. Rights under the Act can be used only against a public authority, for example, the police or a local council, and not a private company. However, court decisions on discrimination usually have to take into account what the Human Rights Act says. The Equal Pay Act 1970 (amended 1984).This says that women must be paid the same as men when they are doing the same (or broadly similar) work, work rated as equ ivalent under a job evaluation scheme, or work of equal value. The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (amended 1986). This makes it unlawful to discriminate against men or women in employment, education, housing or in providing goods and services, and also in advertisements for these things. It’s also against the law, but only in work-related matters, to discriminate against someone because they are married or in a civil partnership.Race Relations Act 1976 (amended 2000). This states that everyone must be treated fairly regardless of their race, nationality, or ethnic or national origins. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. This states that a person with a disability must not be treated less fairly than someone who is able-bodied. Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003. This says it is unlawful to discriminate against people at work because of their religion or belief. The regulations also cover training that is to do with work. Employment Equality (Age) Regulatio ns 2006.This says it is unlawful for an employer or potential employer to discriminate against you at work because of your age. Show interaction with individuals that respects their beliefs, culture, values and preferences I encourage clients to be independent members of the community and to take as much charge for their own self-care as is possible, within their Rights And Responsibilities. In my work, I adhere to the Legal Requirements of the Care Standards Act. I meet the requirements of the Registering Authorities within my role and aim to improve on these requirements.I have a ‘duty of care’ to my clients. I will advise and support clients with any matter they may require assistance with, within my role and capability. I ensure that no personal information regarding a client is disclosed to a third party without prior agreement of the client concerned. Communication with clients should be at the level of their understanding and provide privacy and promote dignity a nd self-respect. Carers via communications with client’s family, previous recording assessment and observation will be aware of any associated difficulties. It may be necessary to remind e. g. onfused elderly clients from time to time and assist where necessary. The Home encourages care workers to take on the role of advocates to promote the awareness of clients’ rights and help them gain access to the services they need. The following set of values is supported for all clients: The freedom of choice on personal matters and preferences. The opportunity to fulfill personal ambitions and develop knowledge and skills. The right to the fullest expression of citizenship. The right to lead an independent a life as possible. The right to privacy and personal space without hindrance.To be treated with respect and dignity in a caring manner at all times. To be recognised as an individual with regard to personal needs irrespective of circumstances. The right of freedom of moveme nt from one place to another without restriction. It is necessary that all records be accurate, legible and complete and current in all circumstances including the promotion of rights and responsibilities. Be able to promote diversity, equality and inclusion Demonstrate actions that model inclusive practice The Equality Act became law in October 2010. It replaces previous legislation such as the Race Relations Act 1976 and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995) and ensures consistency in what you need to do to make your workplace a fair environment and to comply with the law. The Equality Act covers the same groups that were protected by existing equality legislation – age, disability, gender reassignment, race, religion or belief, sex, sexual orientation, marriage and civil partnership and pregnancy and maternity – but extends some protections to groups not previously covered, and also strengthens particular aspects of equality law.The Equality Act is a mixture of ri ghts and responsibilities that have:  · Stayed the same – for example, direct discrimination still occurs when â€Å"someone is treated less favourably than another person because of a protected characteristic†  · Changed – for example, employees will now be able to complain of harassment even if it is not directed at them, if they can demonstrate that it creates an offensive environment for them  · Been extended – for example, associative discrimination (direct discrimination against someone because they associate with another person who possesses a protected characteristic) will cover age, disability, gender reassignment and sex as well as race, religion and belief and sexual orientation.  · Been introduced for the first time – for example, the concept of discrimination arising from disability, which occurs if a disabled person is treated unfavourably because of something arising in consequence of their disability. Demonstrate how to supp ort others to promote equality and rightsThe Home is committed to promoting equality of opportunity, tackling discrimination and welcoming and valuing the diversity of the communities we serve. This policy highlights compliance with anti-discriminatory legislation and regulatory requirements and our ongoing commitment to equality and diversity. It also acts as a framework for promoting and adopting best practice and delivering continuous improvement across all our key business areas. We believe that excellent customer service means providing a service that is accessible and desirable to all, that the promotion of equality and diversity is essential to our core business and that a diverse customer and staff base requires us to value those differences.We will drive commitment to equality and diversity in service delivery by providing accessible and customer focused services, improved understanding of the customer journey, build capacity to refer customers to other services and increas e methods of communication to meet our customer needs. The Home will aim to ensure that no person receives less favourable treatment from the organisation including on the grounds of race, colour, gender, transgender, marital status, religion, disability, age HIV status or sexual orientation. We will monitor all applications for housing and employment by ethnic origin, disability, age and gender to ensure we meet our objectives.Describe how to challenge discrimination in a way that promotes change Always challenge discrimination. Do it in a calm and professional way and tell the individual that what they are saying is unacceptable. You can also say that you are upset and offended by discriminatory words and actions. Also, that it is unlawful. In a work setting, discrimination can be a disciplinary matter and procedures should always be in place, in the form of written documentation, shared with the employee and employer. There should be support for you as an individual, if you are d ealing with discrimination. Challenging discriminatory behaviour means not letting this behaviour happen without taking some sort of action against it.There are many ways that people can be discriminated against. They include verbal or physical abuse, exclusion, labelling or stereotyping . It is important to challenge discriminatory behaviour because it can cause distress, ill health, isolation and stress to a service user. Discrimination usually arises from a lack of awareness and experience rather than deliberate intent. Each organisation needs a policy that will reflect its own ways of working, its community and constituency, activities and size. By examining in detail how you operate, you will learn to recognise how and where discrimination is manifesting itself and be able to deal with each instance.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Emotion and New York Essay

In Proof, there is a contrast presented between the abstract and tangible aspects of life. Claire’s life revolves around everything that is practical while Catherine relies more on things that are theoretical. These choices cause problems in each sister’s life in that they are both disconnected from the real world and neither can relate to other people, including each other. Catherine focuses on the theoretical, letting her life revolve around things that are not tangible, things that other people cannot necessarily see. Early on in the play, Catherine figures out that the number of days she has wasted because of her depression is a mathematically significant number. Math is a very abstract science and this scene shows how mathematically minded Catherine is. It also shows how easily she is able to think abstractly. Her father helps her mathematically manipulate this number right before he admits that he is, in fact, dead at the time of this conversation. Again, Catherine is relying on something intangible, the mental representation of Robert. While Robert was ill, Catherine stayed with him to take care of him emotionally. She did not typically wash dishes, clean the house, or pay bills, Catherine was taking care of her father’s emotional state. In her mind, she was making sure he stayed well by having someone to rely on for the intangible aspects of life. Because Catherine lives in the abstract, she is unable to relate to people who live in the real world. Because of this and other reasons, she has no friends. She tells her father, â€Å"in order for your friends to take you out you generally have to have friends.† Most 25 year olds would go out with friends on their birthday; the fact that she has no friends is odd and causes the audience to worry. In the end of Act 1 Scene 1, Catherine calls the cops to keep Hal from stealing one of her father’s notebooks even though, as she admits in the beginning of Scene 2, she didn’t really want them to come. The cops come back the next morning and are not happy. This shows that she does not relate well with the practical world and its consequences. Unlike her sister, Claire is overly practical, completely engrossed in material aspects of life. While Catherine is at home with their father,  Robert, Claire moves to New York to continue her education, get her own place, and have a job. She pays all the bills from New York, but does not involve herself with other aspects of taking care of their father besides encouraging Catherine to put him in a full time care situation. Bills are very material and concrete, showing how much Claire relies on tangible aspects of life and how well she can deal with these things. When Claire is visiting Catherine for their father’s funeral, she tries to get Catherine to try a conditioner she likes. When Catherine asks Claire for some scientific facts about the Jojoba in the conditioner, Claire replies, â€Å"it makes my hair feel, look, and smell good. That’s the extent of my information about it.† Claire doesn’t know any scientific information about the Jojoba, only how it physically affects her hair. Claire values material objects over immaterial things like emotions, which makes it difficult for her to connect with people and deal with them appropriately. At the party after the funeral, Claire tries to out drink the theoretical physicists and fails miserably waking up with a horrible hangover. Claire does this because she believes, incorrectly, that she is better than the theoretical physicists based on their lack of grounding in the practical world. At the end of Act 1, Claire tells Catherine, â€Å"it’s not your fault. It’s my fault for letting you do it.† This implies that Claire thinks she can control Catherine. Claire believes she can control people like she can control things. Claire also decides she wants Catherine to move to New York so she can keep a better eye on her. She tells Catherine â€Å"it would be much easier for me to get you set up in an apartment in New York† again showing how she wants to control Catherine’s life and does not show regard for Catherine’s emotions such as Catherine’s desire to stay in her home town and her sense of belonging there. Due to Catherine and ClaireÂ’s different priorities, they do not relate to each other and have a disconnected relationship. This is established early on in the play when Catherine says to her father, â€Å"she is not my friend, she is my sister†¦And I don’t like her.† It is clear from this statement that Catherine does not feel connected to Claire. At one point Claire goes so far as to accuse Catherine of being insane, claiming that Catherine has made up  Harold Dobbs. She later meets Hal and does not even apologize to her sister. Sadly, this is not the only thing Claire does to show complete disregard for her sister’s feelings. When Hal shows up in Act 1 Scene 2, Catherine makes a big scene and Claire completely ignores her. “CATHERINE: Okay? I really donÂ’t need this, Claire. IÂ’m fine, you know, IÂ’m totally fine, and then you swoop in here with these questions, and “Are you okay?” and your soothing tone of voice and “Oh, the poor policemen” Ââ€" I think the police can handle themselves! Ââ€" and bagels and bananas and jojoba and “Come to New York” and vegetarian chili. I mean it really pisses me off, so just save it. (Beat.)CLAIRE: (smoothly to HAL) IÂ’m Claire. CatherineÂ’s sister.”Clearly Claire is ignoring CatherineÂ’s emotions and chooses to not try to deal with her sister’s fit. This is also an example of how Catherine inappropriately deals with her own emotions and her sister’s attempts to help. Claire cannot be there for Catherine if she wonÂ’t deal with any emotions and Catherine chooses not to react calmly to ClaireÂ’s assertions. Neither sister has found the best way to live their life, they need to find a happy medium between the practical and theoretical aspects of life so that they can function properly in the real world and relate to the people living in it. Works Cited: Proof by David Auburn