Thursday, February 28, 2019

Personality at Selection Interview

Assignment character Personality fanny be defined as those relatively horse barn enduring aspects of an close toone that distinguish him/her from otherwise plenty and at the aforesaid(prenominal) time trope a basis for our predictions concerning his/her future behaviour. (W unspoilt et al cited in Rollinson 2005) This definition represents the charm that it is possible to identify an separates stable and un changing soulfulnessality and characteristics, and that if the characteristics be set they sight be utilise to predict the persons future behaviour.Organisations differ greatly in their cultures and acceptable behaviours which means that some individuals naturally correspond in better than others. (Rollinson 200585) Job manipulations themselves likewise differ in terms of the suitability of an individuals character in macrocosm successful in that demarcation authority. Therefore in determine the greatness of face-to-faceity at option converse we need to keep an eye on what both the role and the ecesis accept. (Rollinson 200585) In the work surround the assemble of a person has to be right in terms of skills and take in as wellhead as values and needs. Holbeche 2002). Person-organisation raiment refers to the extent to which individuals and organisations sh are exchangeable characteristics (personalities) or accommodate each others needs. The assessment of personality is carried out to determine desirable or un-desirable traits of dissolvedidates to assess their suitability for a role and/or organisation (Arthur2005) getting this right can lead to job bliss and organisational commitment. (Kristoff2000) When an employer is recruiting the mental weight-lift has some splendor.The psychological contract implies a series of mutual expectations and satisfaction needs arising from the P-O kind (Mullins2010) P-O fit is likely to be to a greater extent of import than P-J fit in satisfying the psychological contract (Morley200 7) in that employees go out be askd to adapt to interchanges in tasks and gain new skills. It is argued that great emphasis should be placed on the P-O fit as contrary to the more traditional order of P-J fit because firstly individuals go forth think of some(prenominal) roles within an organisation in that respectfore their P-O is more important than the by chance less lexible P-J fit, they leave behind hold the organisations values and culture closer and will surrender longer service therefore lowering recruitment costs. (Ree and Earles 1992) secondly the changing nature of work requires individuals to be better at teamwork and more flexible. I believe that when recruiting graduates P-O fit is more important as impertinent to P-J fit. Graduates are recruited to provide organisations with a potential pool of future managers and conjure up succession possibilities. Morley2007) Graduates shit little produce in the work environment so are less able to translate their skills, qualifications and experience into the working world. If an employer has a clear intelligence agency of their organisations culture, personalities of other employees and can accurately determine the personalities and beliefs of the graduate they can base their end on the graduates enthusiasm, motivation and preparation to work sooner than skills, qualifications and experience.In a believe by wheel horse et al (cited in Rollinson 2005) it was ensnare that job satisfaction could be increase by increasing P-O fit, that is recruiting employees with similar values to the organisation. However, Wheeler also found that even though an ill-fitting individual resulted in job dissatisfaction, they would non drop dead the organisation unless suitable alternative work presented it egotism. This could lead to them being de-motivated, having light make outance and impact on relationships with colleagues.This shows the importance of getting personality right at choice intervie w. Person-job (P-J) fit refers to the correlation between the individuals skills, qualifications and experience with the requirements of a job. (Edwards1991) and is a traditional method of employee plectrum (Werbell and Gilliland1999) P-J fit is most widely determined through with(predicate) proof of an individuals skills, qualifications and experience through certificates and references and questioning around their fellowship on a topic.I bring in personally heard colleagues question the importance of personality on some roles such as cypherants which would initially strike you as being leaden heavily on their skills, experience and qualifications however how well would an accountant perform if they did not overhear the personality traits to communicate put inively with colleagues and clients? Differing roles do also require different personalities in society to be successful no matter of the organisation. Receptionists, sales person or customer service representative requ ire the ability to hump with stress and deal with individuals with differing priorities. Gatewood et al2005) In conceptualiseing the importance of personality in selection interview it would be sensible to consider how stable and unchanging a persons personality is. argon we seeing a current snapshot of the individuals personality or will it change overtime? Rollinson (2005) writes that if personality is an ongoing developing forge it would be almost impossible to develop valid way of lifes to quantity it and would be pointless in attempting to predict future behaviour.Idiographic, one of the two major theories on personality, focuses on personality developing and changing as a result of ongoing experiences. However, Costa and McCrae (1992) wrote that personality is relatively stable later on the age of 30 therefore exploitation personality in devising selection decisions would be possible due to the stability of personality. Looking at Nomotheic theory, the other of the tw o major theories of personality, which befools personality is stable and un-changing, it was noted that there are 5 distinct differences between people known as the Big Five and ofttimes referred to as OCEAN.These are Openness (perceptive, sophisticated, knowledgeable, cultured, artistic, curious, analytical, grownup traits) Conscientiousness (practical, cautious, serious, reliable, organised, careful, dependable, hard-working, ambitious traits) Extraversion (sociable, talkative, active, spontaneous, adventurous, person-orientated, assertive traits) Agreeableness (warm, trustful, courteous, agreeable, cooperative traits) neurosis ( horny, anxious, depressive, self-conscious, worrying traits) The Big Five can be split into pillowcase theory and trait theory.Mullins cites Hans Eyesneck work in which he identified quartette main personality lineaments. These are stable extraverts,(talkative, responsive, easygoing, lively carefree) unstable extraverts,(impulsive, changeable, excitable, restless) stable introverts (calm, even-tempered, peaceful, thoughtful) and unstable introverts. (anxious, moody, reserved, pessimistic) Mullins writes that if managers can predict future behaviours through an individuals personality type therefore it is not surprising that psychometric tests to measure personality are growing in popularity.Trait theory is then broken tear down again into surface traits (those which are observable) and source traits (which can only be inferred) In theory surface traits could be observe through assessment centres. Mullins writes that the Big Five form the basis of regular personality questionnaires and of these five painstakingness has the highest link with high levels of job knowledge and surgery across a range of occupations.So, according to this, it would be in effect(p) to an organisation to determine candidates personality in order to recruit an individual who has a good score in conscientiousness. However, Maltby et al (2010) w rites that if we were to employ the conscientious person with their practical, cautious, serious, reliable, organized, careful, dependable, hard-working and ambitious traits, would they be suitable for a role requiring innovation and creativity and are they flexible and adaptable to cope with the rapidly changing world of work?He questions the applicability of conscientiousness across all job roles. In considering the impact of personality on our relationship at work with colleagues I believe that emotional intuition has a strong link with aligning personality with successful performance and relationships at work. Emotional Intelligence is defined as a persons ability to manage themselves as well as their relationship with others so that they can live their intentions (Adele20087) and can be broken down into five specific areas.These are self-importance awareness, empathy, sociable expertness, personal sour and mastery of procedure and vision. Each of these areas could consent an impact on our relationships with colleagues. self-importance awareness is an spirit of how our behaviours or words affect others. If we have self awareness we are able to apply self control to change our actions should they be having a negative effect on colleagues. A self aware individual would know when their mood is impacting on others and alter it accordingly.Self awareness is an area looked for in the emotional intelligence of sales people and interview questioning ground around the impact of previous experience of their positive and negative impacts on co-workers would be useful in identifying this area. (Adele 200817) Empathy is an understanding of others feelings and perspective and the ability to experience what somebody else is feeling therefore big(a) a better understanding of our colleagues. It is the ability to respectfully listen preferably than listening to refute or build our own case.A customer service representative who empathises with an irate customer rath er than just demanding their account number will better diffuse a volatile situation. (Adele 200854) marshall Goldsmith (The world authority in wait oning successful leadership get even better) described not listening as the most passive-aggressive form of disrespect shown to colleagues. Social expertness is the building of social bonds which allow us to work with others, share thoughts and ideas, build trust and solvent conflict. The reason that top executives fail is because of their failure to build interpersonal relationships rather than their technical competence.Personal influence is our ability to influence other towards goals or missions and to influence ourselves in taking initiative and displaying confidence. A recruiting manager would be smell for signs at interview that a candidate can exhibit they have got people to previously follow them irrespective of their differing levels. Mastery of purpose and vision is our ability to understand what our purpose is and the refore determine what types of emotions swear out us to live our life purpose. It allows us to manage our emotions and relationships.This is also the determining factor as to whether the institution and role is fit for us. Interview questions ground around a candidates worst and ideal job as well as what inspires and bores them at work can help identify the fit of an individuals personal purpose to an organization. (Adele2008131) Candidates demonstrating emotional intelligence at interview take responsibility for their actions rather than blaming others or playing the victim. (Adele2008146) Studies carried out by Grimsley and Jarrett (cited in Adele2008) concluded that managers displaying higher emotional intelligence were more successful.Anderson and Shackleton (1993) carried out a study on the affinity of the strength of different variables in predicting eventual job performance at the point of selection. Their findings show that personality assessments have a 0. 38 correlatio n, intelligence a 0. 54 correlation, and structured interview 0. 62. Previous experience and the CV came in lower than all these at 0. 18 and 0. 37 respectively. (0. 1 being small, 0. 3 being medium and 0. 5 being prominent correlation) Showing in this study that personality assessment has an important role in predicting job performance, above that of the CV and previous experience. Maltby et al 2010) When displace the theory of personality into practice within the work environment, organisations must be clear on why they are assessing personality and what personality characteristics they are they are looking for. (Torrington et al2011) A clear job exposition and person specification which requires skills, qualifications, experience and personality traits relevant to the job role is key, according to the CIPD, in creating a fair selection process.Should an applicant who is done for(predicate) in being selected for interview threaten or indeed bugger off royal court proceedings , the organization has a clear framework on how selection for interview and employment was made. Torrington et al also write that a method of defining the person specification is to focus on the characteristics or competences of individuals who have previously performed trump in the role. This has positives in that these characteristics are producing individuals who perform well for the business however this method could produce employees who are very similar to one another and address problems with the same mindset.Personality questionnaires are based on the Nomotheic theory that personality is stable and unchanging. The most recognized personality questionnaire is the Myers Biggs Type Indicator (MBTI) based on the theories of Carl Jung. The questionnaire is developed on the understanding that it is of benefit to people to recognise their individual personality types, and how these differ from those of other individuals. The MBTI is an untimed questionnaire which asks respondents to choose between two opposing courses of action, or two words, depending on what they feel is closest to their natural preference.The MBTI measures 4 preferences Extraversion or Introversion, spying or Intuition, Thinking or Feeling and Judging or Perceiving. deals four preferences classify them into one of 16 types. Descriptions are expiren of the characteristics of people of each of the 16 types. Each type is described as having positive qualities and strengths, as well as possible development needs. The questionnaire receives 4 stars from the psychological testing centre. (The British Psychological Society2011) An employer using MBTI can use the information given on the individuals type to further question them at selection interview.Toplis et al (1997) have concerns that the pretermit of involvement of psychologists in marketing and selling personality testing packages results in too many tests being released for general use without the required mind support. He is also tr oubled by the increasing use of computer-based tests, peculiarly to score and interpret results, believing that the accuracy of some systems is not peculiarly high. Personality assessment is based on the belief that certain roles require particular personality and that tests can identify them.The use of ability tests and competence based interviewing as opposed to personality tests are more good defendable in an employment tribunal due to the tangible results being right or wrong whereas with personality tests there are no right or wrong answers and are not as easily defendable should the need arise. There are questions over their validity in so much as practitioners can be trained with a basic knowledge of administering tests and interpreting their results. The British Psychology Society give an overall rating for validity and objectivity of tests.There is the argument that candidates whitethorn be able to manipulate their results to perform in a way they believe the employer r equires. (Furnham1990) therefore invalidating the results and potentially basing a recruitment decision on in-accurate information. In my experience this is where the face to face interview is of vale in verifying and questioning further the results of any personality testing. i. e. Do the results of the personality testing match the behaviours and characteristics of the person sat in front end of me? Recruiters may be influenced by striking characteristics or similarities to themselves called the closed chain Effect.The Halo Effect can be defined as a cognitive bias whereby the perception of one trait (i. e. a characteristic of a person or object) is influenced by the perception of another trait (or several traits) of that person or object. (Mullins 2011) An example would be judging a better-looking person as more intelligent. The Halo Effect can have a positive or negative effect. For example, someone who attended the same college or university as the recruiter could be at an a dvantage but someone who attended a college or university the interviewer perceives to have a poor account could put the candidate at a dis-advantage.Solomon Asch (1945) carried out a study that discovered that the presence of one trait often implies the existence of other additional traits and that certain traits can be characterized as central traits. For example, an individual described as warm is perceived to have positive traits such as euphoric and generous. An individual described as the cold would have the opposite perceived traits. Another example is when individuals believe that a happy person is also friendly or that quiet people are timid. On the other hand, people who are irritable may be seen as in disarray in their daily life.Therefore, people assume other individuals personalities are in doubt using little information. It is often the case that people judge more favourably those individuals with whom they have something in common. An audition carried out at the Pe nn State College of Medicine asked 35 interviewers and cxxxv interviewees to complete the MBTI. The results were not shared prior to face to face interview. The experiment concluded that there was a significant association between similarities in personality type and the rankings that individual interviewers assigned to each interviewee.In this considerateness it is important to be mindful of the effect an individuals personality may have on the outcome of the interview. Employing more than one selection tool does not eradicate the possibility of recruiting an unsuitable candidates. The use of personality data in the selection process, when gathered appropriately, can be valid information in making a contribution to the selection decision however it should not be used in isolation. Personality tests results can be used at interview for the basis of further investigation into applicant abilities.Skills, experience and qualifications are important criterion. Dependent on the role and organisation for which selection is being made will determine the weighting placed on each. If using any form of testing in the selection process employers need to pre-determine the worth of testing and weigh up the benefits, such as increased productivity, with the cost including purchasing a reliable and validated imagination and training recruiting managers to correctly interpret reports.There is, therefore, in my opinion an importance to be placed on personality at selection interview which for me slightly outweighs the importance of skills, qualifications and experience especially when considering the knock on effect that a mismatch of person-job or person-organisation could have on the relationship with colleagues. An organization needs to be clear in what personality traits they are looking for before even advertising a role as the word of an advertisement could attract and alienate certain personalities.Once at selection interview, managers should consider how they are fai rly going to assess personality if using their own judgment. Do they have a fail safe scoring system to measure personality against that cannot back-fire in the event of an employment tribunal? Thought should also be given to how a candidate has undefiled any personality test i. e. to what extent have they thought more or less themselves in the work situation when completing it? Are they naturally sickening when asked to complete any test and therefore put at a dis-advantage? If personality is un-stable and changes over time, would it be wise to re-test individuals?Organisations are fluid and changing constantly. Teams, managers and individuals change. , What was once a good fit may not be in the future. References Adele, B (2008) The EQ Interview. AMACOM Books Anderson, N. D. Shackleton, V. J (1993) Successful selection interviewing. Blackwell publishing Arthur, D. (2005) Recruiting, Interviewing, Selecting and Orienting fresh Employees. quaternate ed. New York AMACOM pagina te 368 British Psychological Society (2011) found at http//www. psychtesting. org. uk/test-registration-and-test-reviews/test-reviews. cfm? page=summary=82CIPD (2011) option Factsheet (online) available from http//www. cipd. co. uk/hr-resources/factsheets/selection-methods. aspx Costa, P. T, McCrae, R. R (1992) Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 13, No. 6. (June 1992), pp. 653-665 Edenborough, R. (2005) Assessment methods in recruitment, selection and performance a managers guide to psychometric testing, interviews and assessment centres. London Kogan Page. Page 2 Edwards, J. R. (1991). Person-job fit A conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique.In C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Eds. ), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (vol. 6, pp. 283-357). New York Wiley. Furnham, A (1990) Can people accurately estimate their own personality test scores? European Journal of Personality, no 4, pp. 319-327 Gatewood, RD. Field, HS. Human option Selection 5th ed. Mike Roche. Page 601-603 Holbeche, L. (2002) Aligning Human Resources and patronage Strategy. second ed. Butterworth Heinemann. IRS Employment Survey July 2010 accessed through employer login at www. xperthr. co. uk Kelly, G. A. (1955).The psychology of personal constructs (Vols. 1 and 2). New York Norton. Kristof-Brown, AL. (2000) Perceived applicant fit Distinguishing between recruiters perceptions of person-job fit and person organization fit. In Personnel Psychology, 53 (4), 643-671 Maltby, J. Day,L . Macaskill, A. (2010) Personality, Individual Differences And Intelligence. 9th ed. apprentice Hall. Michael J. Morley, (2007) Person-organization fit, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 22 Iss 2, pp. 109 117. Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. Mullins, LJ. (2011) charge and Organisational Behaviour. th ed. financial Times Prentice Hall. Page 134 162, 240 Rees, MJ. Earles JA (1992) Intelligence is the best pre dictor of job performance. Psychological Science, 1, 86-89. Rollinson, D. (2005) Organisational Behaviour and Analysis An integrated cost 3rd Ed. Prentice Hall Asch, S. E. Studies in the principles of judgments and attitudes II. Determination of judgments by assembly and by ego standards. /. soc. Psychol. , 1940, 12, 433465. Thorndike, E. L. (1920). A constant error on psychological rating. Journal of Applied Psychology, IV, 25-29 Toplis, J. Dulewicz, V.Fletcher, C (2004) Psychological testing a managers guide. 4th Ed. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Torrington, D. Taylor, S. Hall, L. Atkinson, C (2011) Human Resources Management. 8th ed. Financial Times Prentice Hall Werbel, J and Gilliland, S. W (1999). Person-environment fit in the selection process. In G. R. Ferris (Ed. ) Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 17, 209-243 Wheeler, A. Gallagher, V. Brouer, R, Sablynski, C. When person-organisation (mis) fit and (dis) satisfaction lead to turnove r. In Person Organisation Fit 2nd ed. By Morley, M. London Emerald, Page 203.

4-Mat Review System: Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity

4-MAT refreshen System compositional Approaches to Psychology and Christianity Keyanna Hawkins Liberty University A 4-MAT Re study System Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity Summary In the book Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity, David N. Entwistle explores the relationship between theology and psychology. Throughout time, intellectuals have sand up or dismissed the idea of integrating both opinions. In his book, Entwistle states that during the bygone century, the relationship of religious belief and science has been a topic of intense dig (Entwistle, 2010, p8).He references to capital of Greece and Jerusalem to dish the referee to grasp the theme of the book. Athens represents knowledge through human reason and Jerusalem represents faith. The idea of lay psyche thinking and Christian thinking by Harry Blamers are alike examined (Entwistle, 2010). The text defines secular thinking as restricted limits within humans how invariably Chr istian thinking is an eternal perspective. Entwistle states that all truth is paragons truth and no matter how the truth is discovered the origin is God (Entwistle, 2010, pp13). Entwistle noted that it is important to control the history of Christianity and science.Galileo gagae heavy(p) scientific discoveries, however he was heavily criticized for his findings. The roman print Catholic perform building had a hard time commiserateing scientific method. Overall the Roman Catholic Church deserted the fact Christianity had a part in the development of scientific understanding. Our worldview or life perspective affects how we understand and affiliate to our experiences and the world (Entwistle, pp56). The experience that a person has impacts their life and the way that grasp truth. Entwistle also discusses questions that where posed by Walsh and Middleton these include, what does mean to be human? What is the record of the world? , Whats impairment with world, why do things go wrong? and how what can is wrong with my life, be fixed? These questions answer lifes most fundamental questions. E very worldview frames how one understands the world and how one acts in the world (Entwistle, pp61). The author also addresses four themes to help the commentator move on an understanding of the Christian world view which include creation, fall, redemption and consummation. macrocosm addresses the understanding of who humans are and how it relates to the world that we live in.The fall deals rise against God in the garden. Redemption speaks about the forgiveness of our sins that came through the the Nazarene of Jesus Christ. Finally Consummation pulls all three previous topics together and is the start of the integration at its core. The underwriteking of truth Epistemology cans understanding for the lector to gain cortical potential to the way that humans process and react to truth. Epistemology is the pursuit of intellectual virtue. It wants to provide a n evidentiary basis for belief, rather than one of near opinion. Entwistle then brings up another important topic which is Metaphysics.Metaphysics can be defined as the philosophical investigation of the nature, constitution and stature of reality. philosophic anthropology attempts to validate assumptions made by theologians and psychologists about human nature and port (Entwistle, pp119). The author provides five models for relating to psychology and theology. These models involvek to provide the reader with a clear understanding of the miscellaneous perspectives about book of Gods word, which reveals the will of God and the book of Gods works which is his express power that was first described by Francis Bacon (Entwistle, pp136).The first model is enemies, which is a commitment to a worldview that disregards either religious belief or the insight of human reason. Secondly he speaks, about spies within this model hard-nosed desire to use any means help a persons wellbeing an d also those apart of this model have very little connection to any religious views. The next model is the colonialists whose principal(prenominal) allegiance is to a religious system. The neutral parties have gained knowledge from various perspectives. Lastly the allies model states that people find their purpose when they see there selves in right relationship to God.As Entwistle concludes his work he helps the reader find the road to integration. He also states in order to commix psychology and Christianity it is necessary to define the contours of psychology and the contours of Christian orthodoxy (Entwistle, pp136). Finally the reader is given insight to the road ahead as it relates to psychology and Christianity. concrete Response During the reading of this book a story that kept compete in my head was being back in my grand set outs church building in Louisiana.I can remember being in church and the pastor would lots preach that as Christians we should never add or take a way anything from the word of God. He would often state that when we do that, we are sinning against God. I remember being in church for what felt like was all day. I would fall asleep and mother or naan would pinch me so that I would wake up. The fuss was so extreme and I often would think that God was mad at me because I was falling asleep in church. Another store that comes to take care is whenever the members of my grandmothers church did not understand something it would often be deemed as the devil.For example when I was reading the story of what happened to Galileo, could see the members at my grandmothers church condemning him, because they did not understand the theories that he discovered. My mother told me when she became pregnant with me at age 18 the leading at church asked her to sit the back of the church because of her sin. Growing as a child I thought we say in the back because the was my mother favorite sit in church. I am so blessed that my mother moved away from Louisianan and we longer attended my grandmothers church.If I would have still attended my grandmothers church it would have impacted my worldview negatively. This memory helped me to gain a collapse understanding about the impact that our worldview has on life and the ways in we relate to God. Reflection While reading Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity, many a(prenominal) questions arose for this author. I understand that the book was written to help professionals use the Christian faith and psychology trance at the same to help their clients dominate the barriers they face in life. However whether iris okay to add faith into the counseling session in the secular worldview?A question I have for the author is how to help counseling professionals know how, and when to shuffle with clients. What I enjoyed most about the book is the way Entwistle takes his reader on a journey to discover their feelings and thoughts about integration. While reading this book I was encouraged to think outside of my perspectives. Most importantly I intimate that we must allow ourselves the room to grow and change as we adopt new knowledge. A strength that the book has was the ability to challenge me personally. umpteen times while reading the book I found myself unbelieving many of my thought patterns and beliefs.I would like to know if there will ever be a common agreement between psychologists and topologists. Action As closure of reading this book I am going to utilize the Allies model to my career. I would like to help my clients see themselves in proper relationship to God. I will use the model to integrate psychology and theology to gain a more holistic view of my clients. I am also going to keep in mind that a persons worldview affects how he or she receives and processes truth. Therefore while working with my clients I am going to make an effort to understand their worldview so that I can help them to overcome their trials.Overall as result of reading this book I would like to be an example of spot and grace to my clients. When working with other professionals I am going help them to develop and understand why seeing the clients a holistic perspective is important. I will also stress to my colleagues that when we fail to see our clients from a holistic point of view, we miss out on an opportunity to provide them with tools for success. Reference Entwistle, D. (2010). Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity An introduction to worldview issues, philosophical foundations and models of integration. Eugene, OR exhibitioner Books.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Was Alexander Really Great?

colossalness is an comprehensive term that can hold several different meanings and interpretations. In the display case of black lovage the neat, it has a very specific meaning that reflects upon the achievements and achievement of his bearing time, despite the many character flaws and failings he undoubtedly possessed. black lovage the Great definitely deserves this appellation for three main reasons. Firstly, he conquered an incredibly immense area for his young age and lack of experience secondly he left his mark on society which has lasted till contemporary daytimelight and thirdly he completely revolutionized troops techniques and styles.Firstly, Alexander the Great fought in horrific battles that rewarded him with a huge amount of land, resources and prosperity. He engaged in conflicts including the Battle of Granicus, Battle of Isus and the Battle of Tyre, leading him to conquer nations now cognise as Turkey,Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and a large portion of India. Hi s ambition certainly gainful off, and as Arrian, an historian living at the time of Alexander wrote, He would always have searched beyond for something unknown, and if there had been no other competition, he would have competed against himself. This source is quite reliable, as it reinforces other accounts of his attitude correctly, notwithstanding Arrian basically recorded all the conquests of Alexander the Great, so it may be influenced or recorded with a certain bias that Alexander himself imposed. Secondly, Alexander the Great helped to establish Greek society and spread it over the world. He single handedly created a culture that has maintained itself till this very day. It real is a great feat to form a society, including language, etiquette, customs and traditions that give last thousands and thousands of years.Historian Professor Paul Cartledge stated in his manuscript hunt club for a New Past the great leaders achievements both in his lifetime and posthumously are si mply staggering, as they have lasted the generations to still be evident today. Cartledges opinion, although we must keep in mind it is except his opinion, is certainly reliable as he is a modern day expert on Greek culture and greek history, quoting in an edited and published official manuscript.Lastly, the military wisdom and knowledge that Alexander the Great not only possessed, but created himself, is astounding. The number of battles and wars he planned and kill is truly great, and especially in such a successful manner. This is sensation of his greatest attributes, and the skill he is most remembered for. A tapestry called Alexander the Great in Battle, discovered in 1661 by archaeologist Charles le Brun, reflects upon this concept. It depicts Alexander riding into battle and slaying his enemy with strategy and consider decision.Although it may be not completely reliable as it seems to depict the romantic myth of Alexander as a ferocious and dauntless warrior, it does h old a concise example of his skill in military prowess. Overall, Alexander the Great deserves his namesake because despite having many character flaws, he was an special man who achieved some astounding feats. The vast land he conquered at such a young age, as well as his abundant lasting impacts on Greek society, and finally his military intelligence and success prove that Alexander truly was a great individual.

How to monitor children Essay

Explain how to manage small fryren and young peoples development using different methods. Observations are an important part of a teaching assistants role as feedback tending(p) to teachers is valu fitted as the teacher will then be able to report back to parents and carers on pupils progress. This sharing of teaching between teacher and parent will enable them to work together in the pupils scoop up interests. Informal observations are those which are carried out on a day-to-day basis as you work with pupils you may notice a child is having difficulty understanding a new concept you would them pass this information on to the teacher as part of the feedback process.We as well as expend additive and formative methods of assessment such as formal testing i.e. SATS which embark a childs academic and intellectual development. You may use sampling methods tick box checklists and time sampling methods or plain to undertake an observation. It is important with all methods of mo nitoring to record the feedback to teachers/parents about your findings. You would liken these observations SATS testing results against normal milestones and expected developmental age statistics and information from parents. You should also take into account a childs cultural call for as these may create developmental delay (they may be delayed if they are not using their first language).

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Ellyday by Helen Oyeyemi

Ellyday is intimately two siblings, Sophie and Elly. The story takes g all overn in Ellys bedroom one cold Sunday morning, quaternary days before Christmas. Sophie walked into Ellys bedroom, because she was worried well-nigh her sister Elly, who is in truth skinny and she wanted to talk with her. While Sophie tried to figure out, how to charter Elly to invite out her jumper up, Elly wanted to listen to a CD. Elly wouldnt pull her jumper up and said to Sophie that she was only going to get angry.Then they discussed Ellys weight and appearance and Elly said that she thought Sophies problem is in fact, that Elly is now as skinny as Sophie. After that Elly started to cry outrageous and sank to the floor. Sophie told Elly that she lowlifet see properly how she can think its worth it, further Elly just answered that Sophie didnt really cargon and that she maxim it misadventure. Sophie also told Elly that she was actually sick and needed help and that it would be advisable to ta lk to someone. At this moment Elly listened to her sister and asked her when its okay to die.Sophie got take aback and realized that she didnt know this person any more. Elly elaborate on her drumhead some if it was okay to die before youve ever kissed a boy, or ever been loved, or anything corresponding that. While Sophie was going to explain that it was not okay to die, she just stopped speaking and stared brimming overwhelmed, because Elly had pulled up her jumper. Sophie and Elly are teenagers and I think that Sophie is the oldest of them. Elly has an eating disorder and is very skinny and looks like a scarecrow. She has fluffy brown hair and leaking, dead brown eyes.Shes mostly a silent girl, tho when Sophie talks directly near Ellys thinness, she goes into self-defense. Elly had no control over her words and stumble hesitates over every word that came out from her mouth. Its painful for Elly to speak all the way and rounded, without a slur. She had pale skin tone and s haking hands callable to her thinness. She wears baggy clothes and stuff like that so people cant see how thin she is. Elly was fat before and has a ripe psychological problem. She doesnt feel well inside and asks questions like how its okay to die and when it will be a shame.It seems like that Elly feels shes failed her sister, because she said to Sophie that she had seen what was happening with Elly and that she didnt care. Elly struggled to stand up, talk and things like that. Shes very weak but unshakable, and wouldnt pull her jumper up for her sister. But in the end of the story Sophie gets a surprise. Sophie is the big sister, and she feels a responsibility over Elly. Shes very worried about Elly but also very straightforward in the language. She forced herself to sound raspy over Elly, as she had so many times before when they were younger.She exist to stop speaking to Elly if she didnt do what Sophie said. Sophie behaves like a high-and-mighty kind, like who forever an d a day told Elly what to do, to protect her little sister. I dont like the end of the story because we dont know what happened later Elly pulled her jumper up. We dont know h ow Sophie reacted and why Elly had talked about when it was okay to die. I would do everything in my power to prevent anything from happening to my friends. Weather it was drugs, drinking, eating disorders or over eating. I wouldnt generate them. What are friends for? Friendship for me isnt just about having fun.Its about taking the good and bad with each other. If I were a teenager I would probably get advice from some older wiser person who is more experienced in life. From there I would hope the best for them and let them know they have my support if they need me, because sometimes its not about to tell them what to do and such its more about support. Of course you have to tell them that what theyre doing isnt good and helping, but not being bossy. Keep in mind they didnt always do this to themselves by n o causation, so figure out the reason and then help them through it.

Dangers of the Internet

M some(prenominal) people view the meshwork as an ultimate resource for anything they desire. The people who say that the profits is a brilliant invention for the best shake reasons backing up their idea. For utilisation, Sherry Turkle writes rough much(prenominal) ideas explaining how the meshwork is an excellent tool for the reveal in her essay, dejection You Hear Me Now? Turkle intrusts strongly that the invention of the earnings is an innovation for the better and emphasizes to her readers how important it is in e preciseones lives nowadays.On the new(prenominal) hand, some be consistve exactly the oppo grade of Turkles invalid inquisition that the cyberspace is a tool that is somewhat definitely non for the all-embracinger steady-going. The meshing is a major promoter of emphasis and bad habits, it allows ab exploiters to reach people that do non trust to be reached and it opens galore( conductnominal) of us up to identicalness theft and malware vir exp ends. The mesh is an extremely hazardy device that umpteen of the top-notch C employmentrs eat up for granted every eruptdue to the lack of knowledge of its d evokes.With the great major power that the network provides comes great responsibility that its users essential also provide. Just equal many a(prenominal) other things, there are people who lack such responsibility and use the internet with bad intentions. Influencing Violence The first tier of discussion pertaining to the harmfulness of the World Wide Web is that it is a great promoter of furiousness and bad habits. Users are free to roam to any image of website they please, whether it is a game site, fond networking site, forum site and etcetera.The internet has no restrictions as to what people put on websites and web pages. frequently like violence in video games, the internet hobo operate violence towards its users as well. Michele L. Ybarra speaks ab forbidden the cadence that small fryren are in fluenced by the dotty website on the internet today in her essay Linkages Between net profit and Other Media Violence With Seriously Violent Behavior by Youth, which was produce in the Official Journal Of The Ameri sack up Academy Of Pediatrics. The internet is a host to many violent games and violent based websites alike.About 97% of the youth ages 12-18 are using online communications and have online access (Ybarra 929). With this many kids on the internet they can browse and view hate pages which split against people or they can come across violent tie in web pages as well (Ybarra 930). With this increase exposure to these websites, causes an increase in violent air among our youth. Ybarra and her team conducted a study of 10-15 year former(a) children and the effects of the different sources of violent media on their real habits.The results generateed substantial results of increased violent behavior among the group that was associated with the violent media (Ybarra 933 ). Results reported that the violent behaviors include shooting or stabbing, aggravated round, robbery and sexual assault (Ybarra 933). Among the many types of media that was studied such as music, video games, television and the internet, the type of media that was the most influential was the internet (Ybarra 933).Ybarra goes to show her readers that most of all websites utilize include killing, fighting and shooting which in correlation contri howevered to the stimulus of the childrens anger level, having delinquent friends, and substance use such as drugs and alcohol (933). The supervise of what our children view on the internet is crucial towards their health and well being, without monitor our children are prone to be influenced by immoral and violence behaviors. hit Those Who do Not Want to be ReachedAnother harmful risk that the internet so willfully provides is the dangers of national violence and child predators. The internet allows predators and violent domesticate d supplys to access people and children on a wide scale with the click of a mouse. The various favor fitted networking sites that the internet provides is a great deal like a database for people to access whoever they want. Although children and the victims of domestic violence do not want to be reached by predators and violent spouses, it is easy for these dreaded people to reach them without their welcome consent.As I myself say, the internet is straw made easy. In her article, Friend Request or Foe, Laurie L. Baughman persuades her audience of the dangers and risks pertaining to internet stalking, mainly pertaining to domestic violence. Baughman is a senior attorney at the papa Coalition Against Domestic Violence, thus bragging(a) her the right to speak about the topic. Facebook itself has over 400 million active viewers, and it considered the most popular online social networking sight for adults and children alike (Baughman 933).Baughman also points out that Facebook users in total upload approximately three billion photos either month and the average user spends about 55 minutes a day on the site (934-935). With such astronomical numbers like these, this introduces a whole advanced type of stalking based violence that was once again introduced by the internet. To start, pertaining to the issue of domestic violence, which is the major topic that Baughman discusses in her essay. She feels that it is an extremely vulnerable as square up that the internet has brought upon society.Baughman asserts in her essay Internet users who are victims of domestic violence may be vulnerable to further abuse or may experience harassment or stalking done these social networking mediums (935). This quotation mark offers a brief summary of the topic that Baughman is most touch about in her essay, which will be addressed below. Domestic violence is defined as abusive behavior in a human relationship to gain or maintain power, all of which can be done by act ions or threats (Baughman 936).To show how much of a problem domestic violence has set out Baughman uses the quote An estimated 1. million women are victims of physical assault each year (936). With the amount of people attached to the internet today, many domestic assaults root from internet stalking. These social networking website were people post cyphers and reading about themselves has become a source of vulnerability of victims of domestic violence (Baughman 940). For example, many of us post pictures and personal data on Facebook, but what many do not know is that there can be bad people that we do not want seeing this schooling looking at it as well. more of you may be acquainted(predicate) with the quote from Spiderman With great power comes great responsibility, this is much like the quote from Baughmans essay when she states Using technology is like a super power you can use it for bad and you can use it for good (940). This quote from Baughmans piece stresses her c oncern of how much power comes from the internet and how people can use this power by message of harming other people. With this power that the internet has gainn to anybody who uses it, comes people who use it by means of stalking.The term cyber-stalking came directly from the invention of the internet and it is defined as behavior that constitutes computer based harassment (Baughman 940-941). Such stalkers do things such as monitoring other peoples email, sending email threats or insults, disrupting email communication, using others email identity and using the internet to stand by personal development (Baughman 941). Although many may see all of these as an invasion of privacy, with the power the internet has given us, most of them are very simple to do and done quite oft.In her essay Baughman shows her readers how cyber-stalking often leads to physical staking (941). With the small amount of difficulty that cyber-stalking is, often an abusive partner uses it to maintain pow er and control over their victim (Baughman 941). All of the higher up ways discussed, pertaining cyber-stalking can allow an abuser to access their victim through the internet, eventide if the victim has set up an internet protection, which will be discussed in the bordering topic (Baughman 941).Baughman uses an example of such harassment through emails in her essay she tells us a story of how an abusive preserve sent 1,500 pages of threatening emails to his ex-wife even when she had a restraining order placed on him (944). To sum up Baughmans essay, due to social networking sights allowing individuals to freely post photos, comments, and other personal culture, the internet acts as a personal education super-highway that is easily reached by abusers (965). A simple search of a persons find can bring up very personal information that abusers can easily access (Baughman 965).In sum, social networking sights and the internet are tools for communication, blogging, picture sharin g and now vengeance by abusers. Roam at your own risk (Baughman 953). nada, including domestic partner are safe when on the internet. The next point of discussion relating to how abusers can access people who do not want to be reached is the issue of child predators on the internet. The author L. Alvin Malesky, younger , PhD in the Department of Psychology writes his essay Predatory Online Behavior Modus Operandi of Convicted energize Offender in Identifying Potential Victims and Contacting Minors Over the Internet, in correlation to this topic.Most sex offenders know their victims before even meeting it them, they become acquainted through the internet (Malesky 24). As discussed previously in Baughmans essay, this task of becoming acquainted with anyone you want is relatively easy with the amount of social networking websites today. Predators tend to disguise themselves as another teenager and lie about their identity, the internet provides them with ideal cover that can fool eve n the smartest of children (Malesky 24). In his essay Malesky affirms Chat rooms were the most frequently use component of the Internet to identify and contact potential victims (26).When a child that talks about sex in anyway on the internet, it is nominate appealing by pedophiles and is often the reason why pedophiles go after a specific child (Malesky 27). This warning given by Malesky shows her readers how every little thing you say, post or do on the internet can be viewed by these disturbing people and can peradventure make you their next target. These sex offenders patrol the virtual world in hopes to find a victim and eventually meet with them in person. wad are free to surf the web, the type of people that lean towards an attractor to children are also free to do as they please.The internet give minors vulnerability to people who wish to do them harms (Malesky 30). In evidence to his topic Malesky tells warns his readers that children should not post anything sexual on the internet or talk to people you do not know, you never know who may be looking or listening (Malesky 30) Children are put in harms way while online, thus in sum urging how shaky the internet really is. Cyber-Crime Lastly, the internet itself has brought forth a new type of evil everywhere in the world.The term cyber-crime refers to crime that takes place from a computer through the internet. These cyber-criminals can steal your identity, take your personal information and even give your computer a virus without ever difference their computer desk. The root cause of this new crime is directly due to the invention of the internet. As was previously stated, the internet is a tool that requires responsibility.Criminals take no such responsibility when performing bootleg cyber-crime related acts. Nobody is safe when they are on the internet with the growing amount of yber-criminals today. outfit Burden discusses the issue of the change magnitude problem of cyber-criminals in her essay, Internet crime Cyber Crime A new breed of criminal? which was published in Science Direct (College Edition). Burden starts out her essay by show her readers that 43% of Americans recognize cyber-crime as a problem (2). These types of crime have been introduced to the world thanks to the invention of the World Wide Web. The first example of a cyber criminal I would like to point out is the increasingly more and more common taxicab.Hackers use technology to gain illegitimate access to private computer systems, which is mostly for the purpose of retrieving confidential information such as doctrine card number and internet passwords (Burden 3). If the hacker has used a computer for functions with intent of retrieving other peoples information and date, this is considered illegal based off the Computer Misuse Act in 1990 (Burden 4). A hacker can obtain the most confidential of information on your computer, for example they can take your credit card information and use it as their own.Hackers may also go onto company website and alter what their information reads for terms such as of political leads and malicious intent such as cyber terrorism (Burden 4). Secondly, with the increasing threat of hackers, there is also an increasing threat of credit card snake oil. These two go hand in hand with each other because hackers much of the time aim to receive others credit card information illegally by hacking. Burden points out that there is an estimated four billion dollars lost to credit card fraud each year and fifty percent of that coin lost comes from online credit card fraud/hacking (9).Burden also points out how vastly internet related commerce is growing, therefore so will the amount of money lost to credit card fraud due to the increasing dangers present by hackers (9). Along with credit card information, we must not allow for that hackers can steal information such as accounts that you have set up online, which can hold your payment information a nd use them as well, the same goes for your email account. Lastly, on top of all that hackers can put together malicious software onto your personal computer without you knowing.Viruses are embedded indoors files which you may think to be real however they can be completely the opposite and trick you into downloading a virus. Most of the time, if one clicks on the virus itself it will download without you even noticing. Viruses can do whatsoever the maker of the virus wants them too. Viruses such as a key lumberman are planted on a computer and it will show the hacker who made the viruses every key you input into the computer. For example, if you type in your credit card information, the hacker will now be able to view it.The famous Love Bug virus was released two years ago and single handedly completely shut down and paralyzed over 100 million computers (Burden 5). Because viruses can be spread to many users at a very fast pace and often can not be erased, they are looked down upon by the government and are interpreted extreme legal action against (Burden 6). Conclusion In conclusion, one has wise to(p) a great amount about the internet and the harm that it can bring. The internet puts a great amount of power into the hands of anyone who decides to use it, a power that should not be tampered with and often is by its abusers.Many reasons validate the inquisition that the internet is not a resource for the greater good but it is a tool that can and frequently is used for promoting violence and bad habits, allowing abusers to reach people that do not want to be reached and lastly, it opens many of us up to identity theft and malware viruses. We must all think twice about using the internet and if we do hopefully now we will take extra precautions especially when giving the power to roam the web to our children. The internet is an extremely dangerous place and we must not forget, nobody is safe when they are on the internet

Monday, February 25, 2019

Combating Compassion Fatigue

Running Head Combating lenity s get by off Combating mercy drop Raynell Giron Grand C bothon University HLT 310V Sep. 29th, 2012 Combating benevolence Fatigue This writer pass on define and identify the keys comp whizznts to mercyateness hold out. This writer leave also cook out upon the monition signs of pity tire out and any(prenominal) interventions that fecal matter be beat into place by the fear donor to upkeep countermand t overthrowerness fatigue.This writer will further give about jockful get by skills that discount be accustomd to manage pity fatigue and the resources a circumspection giver can turn excessively in the shell they experience compassion fatigue. Compassion fatigue has been define as a combination of physical, stirred, and spiritual depletion associated with caring for patients in world-shattering emotional trouble one ego and physical distress (A refreshfulalt, 2009). It can also entangle depression, apathy, and impaired ju dgement.It is considered a unique form of trimout that affects individuals in care crowing roles (Lombardo, 2011). While compassion fatigue can most cartridge clips be precipitated by burn out, that is not always the case. Burn out is defined as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, de face-to-faceization, and trim accomplishments that can occur among individuals who do mountain work of some kind(Maslach & Jackson, 1986, p. 1). While the symptoms of both are similar, the warning signs differ greatly. to a greater extent or less of the warning signs a care giver may be experiencing compassion atigue allow work-related symptoms, physical symptoms, and emotional symptoms (Lombardo, 2011). Some of the work related symptoms may complicate avoidance or dread of functional with certain patients, reduced ability to feel empathy towards patients or families, frequent put on of sick days, and escape of joyfulness (Lombardo, 2011). Some of the physical warning signs include headach es, digestive problems, softness to sleep, insomnia, too oft sleep, and cardiac symptoms such as chest ail/pressure, palpitations, and tachycardia (Lombardo, 2011).Emotional signs of compassion fatigue can include fancy swings, restlessness, irritability, oversensitivity, anxiety, excessive use of substances like nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drugs, depression, anger and resentment, loss of objectivity, shop issues, poor concentration, focus, and image (Lombardo, 2011). While a care giver can experience any of the above symptoms at any while during their career, it is all classical(predicate) to note that a combination of any of the above symptoms would be use to determine whether or not a person is experiencing compassion fatigue.Possible factors hint to compassion fatigue can be classified according to nature characteristics, previous picture to trauma, empathy and emotional energy, response to stressors, and work/organizational characteristics (Sabo, 2011). look fo r cl early demonstrates that works with patients who are in pain, suffering, or at end of life may take a toll on the psychosocial thoroughlyness and well macrocosm of take holds (Sabo, 2011). To determine whether or not a health care giver is experiencing compassion fatigue an assessment tool has been break awayed.The interest is a prefatorial assessment that can be done by the nurse to benefactor determine the risk of compassion fatigue. Description/ evaluation of ones work setting and working conditions ones tendency to nonplus over involved ones popular coping strategies and care of life crises ones usual activities to fill self physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually and ones openness for learning new skills to enhance personal and sea captain well being (Lombardo 2011). Some interventions that could be used to help reduce the incidence of ompassion fatigue include early recognition of signs and symptoms, staying physically fit, staying well rested, dev elop healthy and supportive family relationships external of the work environment, and utilise diversions like journal writing, counseling, or enjoy adequate to(p) amateur activities to help encounter compassion fatigue (Panos, 2007). One could also seek guidance from a mentor or counselor. Koloroutis (2007) identified three magnetic core relationships for transforming practice employ relationship-based nursing including the nurses relationship with patients and families, the nurses relationship with self, and the nurses relationship with colleagues.The nurses relationship with self is a core concept in managing compassion fatigue. Nurses need to be assertive, to express personal needs and values, and to view work-life sense of equilibrium as an possible outcome. This relationship with self is essential for optimizing ones health, for being empathic with others, and for being a productive member of a work root within a healthcare facility (Lombardo, 2011). The coping stra tegies for dealing with compassion fatigue fall along the same channel as those of prevention.If one were to find that one is experiencing compassion fatigue some coping strategies would include exercise, maintaining a personal life that includes healthy relationships, develop a ace of humor, set limits between work and home office activities, and lead your horizons. The Compassion Fatigue Awareness project has developed as a result of more and more care givers experiencing this trauma. This project gives resources for workshops, training, and counseling for care givers. ConclusionIn conclusion, compassion fatigue can take its toll on care givers and cause dissatisfaction for the care giver and their patients. It is imperative that care givers learn to concede their limitations, know themselves on a spiritual level and save how much they are able to give of themselves in a work environment without over extending themselves which could then(prenominal) lead to compassion fatig ue and/or burn out. It is also important for the care giver to implement strategies to help avoid burn out and compassion fatigue.These strategies could include those listed above as well as time for mediation at work, create a restful environment at work by transforming the work station, or just finding the time to discuss complex patient situations with supportive co-workers.References Anewalt, P. (2009). blast up or burned out? Understanding the importance of professional boundaries in home health care hospice. Home Healthcare Nurse, 27(10), 591-597. Koloroutis, M. (2007). Relationship-based care A puzzle for transforming practice. Minneapolis, MN Creative Health Care Management, Inc. Lombardo, B. , Eyre, C. , (Jan 31, 2011) Compassion Fatigue A Nurses PrimerOJIN The Online diary of Issues in breast feedingVol. 16, no. 1, Manuscript 3. Retrieved Sept. 29th, 2012 from http//www. nursingworld. org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-16-2011 /No1-Jan-2011/Compassion-Fatigue-A-Nurses-Primer. html Maslach, C. , & Jackson, S. (1986). Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual(2 ed. ). Palo low-pitched Consulting Psychologists Press. Panos, A (February, 2007). Promoting resiliency in trauma workers. Poster presented at the 9th universe Congress on Stress, Trauma, and Coping, Baltimore, MD. Sabo, B. , (Jan 31, 2011) Reflecting on the Concept of Compassion FatigueOJIN The Online Journal of Issues in NursingVol. 16, No. 1, Manuscript 1. Retrieved Sept. 29th, 2012 from http//www. nursingworld. org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-16-2011/No1-Jan-2011/Concept-of-Compassion-FatigueCombating Compassion FatigueRunning Head Combating Compassion Fatigue Combating Compassion Fatigue Raynell Giron Grand Canyon University HLT 310V Sep. 29th, 2012 Combating Compassion Fatigue This writer will define and identify the keys components to compassion fatigue. This writer will also expound upon the warning sig ns of compassion fatigue and some interventions that can be put into place by the care giver to help avoid compassion fatigue.This writer will further give some helpful coping skills that can be used to manage compassion fatigue and the resources a care giver can turn too in the event they experience compassion fatigue. Compassion fatigue has been defined as a combination of physical, emotional, and spiritual depletion associated with caring for patients in significant emotional pain and physical distress (Anewalt, 2009). It can also include depression, apathy, and impaired judgement.It is considered a unique form of burnout that affects individuals in care giving roles (Lombardo, 2011). While compassion fatigue can sometimes be precipitated by burn out, that is not always the case. Burn out is defined as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced accomplishments that can occur among individuals who do people work of some kind(Maslach & Jackson, 1986, p. 1). While the symptoms of both are similar, the warning signs differ greatly. Some of the warning signs a care giver may be experiencing compassion atigue include work-related symptoms, physical symptoms, and emotional symptoms (Lombardo, 2011). Some of the work related symptoms may include avoidance or dread of working with certain patients, reduced ability to feel empathy towards patients or families, frequent use of sick days, and lack of joyfulness (Lombardo, 2011). Some of the physical warning signs include headaches, digestive problems, inability to sleep, insomnia, too much sleep, and cardiac symptoms such as chest pain/pressure, palpitations, and tachycardia (Lombardo, 2011).Emotional signs of compassion fatigue can include mood swings, restlessness, irritability, oversensitivity, anxiety, excessive use of substances like nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drugs, depression, anger and resentment, loss of objectivity, memory issues, poor concentration, focus, and judgment (Lombardo, 2011). While a care giver can experience any of the above symptoms at any time during their career, it is important to note that a combination of any of the above symptoms would be used to determine whether or not a person is experiencing compassion fatigue.Possible factors leading to compassion fatigue can be classified according to personality characteristics, previous exposure to trauma, empathy and emotional energy, response to stressors, and work/organizational characteristics (Sabo, 2011). Research clearly demonstrates that working with patients who are in pain, suffering, or at end of life may take a toll on the psychosocial health and well being of nurses (Sabo, 2011). To determine whether or not a health care giver is experiencing compassion fatigue an assessment tool has been developed.The following is a basic assessment that can be done by the nurse to help determine the risk of compassion fatigue. Description/evaluation of ones work setting and working conditions ones te ndency to become over involved ones usual coping strategies and management of life crises ones usual activities to replenish self physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually and ones openness for learning new skills to enhance personal and professional well being (Lombardo 2011). Some interventions that could be used to help reduce the incidence of ompassion fatigue include early recognition of signs and symptoms, staying physically fit, staying well rested, develop healthy and supportive relationships outside of the work environment, and implement diversions like journal writing, counseling, or enjoyable recreational activities to help combat compassion fatigue (Panos, 2007). One could also seek guidance from a mentor or counselor. Koloroutis (2007) identified three core relationships for transforming practice using relationship-based nursing including the nurses relationship with patients and families, the nurses relationship with self, and the nurses relationship with coll eagues.The nurses relationship with self is a core concept in managing compassion fatigue. Nurses need to be assertive, to express personal needs and values, and to view work-life balance as an achievable outcome. This relationship with self is essential for optimizing ones health, for being empathic with others, and for being a productive member of a work group within a healthcare facility (Lombardo, 2011). The coping strategies for dealing with compassion fatigue fall along the same line as those of prevention.If one were to find that one is experiencing compassion fatigue some coping strategies would include exercise, maintaining a personal life that includes healthy relationships, develop a sense of humor, set limits between work and home activities, and broaden your horizons. The Compassion Fatigue Awareness project has developed as a result of more and more care givers experiencing this trauma. This project gives resources for workshops, training, and counseling for care giver s. ConclusionIn conclusion, compassion fatigue can take its toll on care givers and cause dissatisfaction for the care giver and their patients. It is imperative that care givers learn to recognize their limitations, know themselves on a spiritual level and just how much they are able to give of themselves in a work environment without over extending themselves which could then lead to compassion fatigue and/or burn out. It is also important for the care giver to implement strategies to help avoid burn out and compassion fatigue.These strategies could include those listed above as well as time for mediation at work, create a relaxing environment at work by transforming the work station, or just finding the time to discuss complex patient situations with supportive co-workers.References Anewalt, P. (2009). Fired up or burned out? Understanding the importance of professional boundaries in home health care hospice. Home Healthcare Nurse, 27(10), 591-597. Koloroutis, M. (2007). Relation ship-based care A model for transforming practice. Minneapolis, MN Creative Health Care Management, Inc. Lombardo, B. , Eyre, C. , (Jan 31, 2011) Compassion Fatigue A Nurses PrimerOJIN The Online Journal of Issues in NursingVol. 16, No. 1, Manuscript 3. Retrieved Sept. 29th, 2012 from http//www. nursingworld. org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-16-2011/No1-Jan-2011/Compassion-Fatigue-A-Nurses-Primer. html Maslach, C. , & Jackson, S. (1986). Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual(2 ed. ). Palo Alto Consulting Psychologists Press. Panos, A (February, 2007). Promoting resiliency in trauma workers. Poster presented at the 9th World Congress on Stress, Trauma, and Coping, Baltimore, MD. Sabo, B. , (Jan 31, 2011) Reflecting on the Concept of Compassion FatigueOJIN The Online Journal of Issues in NursingVol. 16, No. 1, Manuscript 1. Retrieved Sept. 29th, 2012 from http//www. nursingworld. org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofC ontents/Vol-16-2011/No1-Jan-2011/Concept-of-Compassion-Fatigue

Employer branding

Footings of mentionsThis think over highlights the lifting instinct for the development of Employer Branding take a leak and its benefits for the g everywherenances in present competitory tug market. The struggle between level-headed employer brand and employees rights and ecstasy toward arrangement has been examined in this study with specific focal drive on the unethical and coercive result.IntroductionEmployer stigmatization is the perceptual let of employees about an organisation as a topographic point to exertion. It s designed for motivation and procuring employee s coalescency with the vision and fosters of the organisations. From the HR perspective the construct was subsumed the older landmark INTERNAL BRANDING that was basic ally the procedure of pass oning an organisation s give out nominate value to its employee.Employer stigmatizationThe construct of EMPLOYER BRANDING was created in the nineties by Simon Barrow, who founded People in Business ( no w package of TMP ecumenical ) and was the co-author of The Employer Brand. 1 In the yesteryear, Barrow had been a consumer honests raft in consult director and headed up an advertisement bureau in London, but after became the main executive of a enlisting bureau. He was instantly infatuated by the similarities between the challenges facetd in advancing consumer goods and in advert the strengths of an administration s employee pro come out. Both, he recognised, demand a strong good deal account, and so the construct of employer stigmatization was conceived. He defined employer branding as a set of properties which make the employees feel more(prenominal)(prenominal) close to the ships comp all and take pride of being associated with the ships follow they earn for. Employer stigmatization is in kernel the mental apparatus of an employee where he or she receives mental satisfaction in the same mode as when he or she uses a merchandise of a preferable trade place.Emp loyer stigmatization is hence a set of attitudes, every turn of events good as an array of activities and characteristics modify the procedure of branding to be more effectual. They could be psychological ( doings of higher-ups ) , economic ( compensation bundle, benefits ) or functional ( possible to turn, occupation appoint harmonizing to capableness ) .These interpretations indicate that employer branding agencies advancing and constructing an individuality and a cod position of what makes an organisation different and desirable as an employer. It has similarities with merchandise and in incorporate stigmatization but the redbird difference is its more employment particular.Recruitment and employer stigmatizationDeveloping an employer trade call forth is a combination of pastime vision, values, and behaviors, and presenting a service that shows committedness to outdo pattern and service excellence. It begins with the enlisting procedure that offers figure of tools tha t sewer be used to make perceptual experiences of an using organisation, these tools ar seam advertizement and descriptionInterview procedureOffer lettersInformation battalion for new recruitersEmployee enchiridionsInitiation and preparation.The enlisting procedure is an of import expressive style to construct a positive relationship between the organisation and employee. end-to-end the process, the organisation bay window make a strong and positive position about them even it gutter be extended to unsuccessful campaigners as good.When employees sop up encountered the earnestness and truth of the employer trade name, they forget cristal it frontward, actively advancing the trade name to co-workers and clients. However, employer stigmatization which is fundamentally mendacious entrust non work and is seeming to be counter-productive.Benefits of Employer BrandingLong- place impact Successful employer trade name shadow thrust a positive impact on enrolling for a conside rable sum of tweet while sing any Major PR issues.Increased volume of self-generated campaigners The figure of appliers tends to increase each twelvemonth as the employer branding labors stronger. Cases of a 500 % growth of applications cave in too been observed.Addition in quality of the appliers The quality of campaigners go away besides let out dramatically persons who neer would hold considered in the yesteryear will get down applying.Higher offer-acceptance rates The rate of credence addition pro drawally with the addition of image and good will of the troupe.Higher Employee Motivation Employees put up be unclouded motivated, or will remain motivated longer in the follow because of the sensed pride in working for the company, and better direction patterns ( by and large ) that is tied-in with the company s trade name image, hence doing it a company people work for because they chose.A stronger corporate civilization Employment stigmatization dismiss assist beef up house s corporate civilization because of the inactiveness it additions from the really kernel of employer stigmatization doing a company desirable to work for.Diminished negative promotion and image Effective stigmatization can nail jobs by covering with negative remarks and fixing effectual counter measurers.Increased director satisfaction As a direct outlet of increased involvement from more able and adept appliers, the directors will hold more clip for managerial maps as the admit to give more clip to recruitment procedure will diminish with the quality of the applicator group.Healthy rival Employer stigmatization is similar to merchandise stigmatization. Hence to maintain a company desirable, it has to update its UPS and maintain up with its promise of bringing. This increases healthy competition and besides makes the companies better by the minute.Increased stockholder value The ripple consequence of the company s good will via employer stigmatization can besides positive ly impact a house s stock pecuniary value.Support for the merchandise trade name If a company has a bright trade name image, it is more deally that its merchandise will pull together the benefits of it and be branded automatically. This helps particularly when the company launches a new merchandise.The trade name kernel should sum up what the trade name stands for, dismission the karyon for merchandise development, all communications and even HR enterprises for employees. Its definition should besides be consistent with the corporate vision/mission and values.For illustration, Volvo is a good illustration of a trade name description is Volvo Style, private road pleasance and superior ownership experience while observing tenders values and esteeming the environment. Volvo s values and associations reflecting this trade name individuality argon what atomic number 18 considered to be typically Norse e.g. nature, security and wellness, human values, elegant simpleness, origin ative technologyand the spirit of stylish/innovative functionality .For Volvo, this description non solely mirrors the psycho-graphic indite of the ideal client for their autos, but besides summarizes what Volvo as a company means to all its workers its employer trade name. These ar intrinsic values that Volvo workers can associate to, what they believe in and why they feel comfy doing a committedness to their occupations. One can easy visualise the types of HR plans that would amend a sense of pride and re-enforce these intangibles e.g. nature, wellness, security and other meaningful human values.Living the trade name Life THE BRAND is placing with an organisations trade name value to much(prenominal) an extent that employees behaviors fit precisely to the image that the precaution is seeking to portray to its clients ( Alan Price 2007 ) . The alliance between employees behavior and value of organisation s trade name image is really of import. It is suggested that administ rations strike to guaranty that there is no spread between what the administration is stating in the outside universe and what people believe inside the concern. The employees should be perceive as Brand embassador and trade name selling would merely be successful if they LIVE THE BRAND.From this positionOrganizations suck encouraged employees to steal in to the concern vision and values.They have to warrant that everyone in the organisation haply understand the intent of the common set of values.Harmonizing to Ind ( 2004 ) , the subjects discussed are likely to be of involvement to HR and selling practicians every bit good as those involved in upcountry communications within administrations. Employees themselves are anticipate to internalize characteristics and facets of the administration s trade name to guarantee that they become trade name title-holders, therefore assisting to stand for to administration s trade name to the outside clients. Such an attack instantly rais es close to interesting jobs associating to equality and diverseness as it expects each employee to portion a peculiar set of values and act in conformity with these values.The employee branding attack being recommended by Ind raises a figure of challenges for those interested in an equality and diverseness docket. An administration that aims to guarantee that employees are populating the trade name will specifically take to pull and enroll employees who already portion the values of the corporate trade name. Furthermore, those already employed within the administration will be encouraged to internalize the values of the administration. Clearly, there are jobs for promoting diverseness here, with one of the rules of diverseness direction being an credence and character reference that people are different and single differences ( particularly of values ) should be welcomed. Inherently, a populating the trade name focal point is likely to croak against such a rule. Ind makes the po int that promoting employee designation and committedness to the administration s trade name values might deny an look of individualism. However, Ind suggests that internal stigmatization combined with leting employees to be empowered will enable liberty with order.Denial of individualism ( plant computer code form _or_ system of government )When it comes to professional image , more employers are gaining that Standards of habilitate and personal presentation are indispensable therefore holding a policy on apparel computer code can be of import.Where the employees meet clients, they act as the store window for the company and the benefits of presentable visual aspect are obvious. However, even where the employee s work is internal, there are less touchable benefits such as devising a squad atmosphere,Engendering criterions of professionalism, andMaking a corporate image.As employers are gaining this, they are compensable more attending to the visual aspect of their emplo yees and the image and perceptual experience of the concern tog, learning and personal hygiene are all portion and package of this.However, the issue of work topographic point clothe codifications can be extremely controversial. It is critical that employers are cognizant of the favoritism issues that dress codifications can make.Issues with work topographic point clothes codificationsIn administrations with uniforms, the issues can be more broad ranging. For case, at the Greater Manchester Police Force, bureaucratism and involuntariness to accept alteration has hampered the debut of hijabs for Muslim adult females.At Inchcape Fleet Solutions where all 140 non-senior staffs are provided with polo shirts or blouses branded with the company logo the stylus of the uniform does non accommodate all staff and most do non like have oning it . This would impact their tempers at work and accordingly affect their overt presentation.Ailments of favoritismFurthermore, a ailment was raised informally by the staff fabrication of kid trust fund supplier Family Investments and relates to the fact that adult females can have on pants that are non full length, while work forces can non. Employees have requested that the company allows trunkss to be worn, every bit long as they are below the articulatio genusBesides, in phratry 2006, a British Airways worker has been suspended and attended an entreaty over have oning a cross at work at Heathrow Airport. She claims the reprieve is prejudiced, particularly since the air hose allows Sikh employees to have on traditionalistic Fe bracelets and Muslim workers to have on headscarves.BA has said it will go over its unvarying policy in visible radiation of the media storm the communicative has provoked.Employer stigmatization and favoritism jurisprudencethither are three countries of favoritism relevant to dress codification policySex Discrimination make up 1975Religious or whimsey Regulations 2003Disability Discrimin ation Act 1995.Sexual activity favoritism and clothes codificationsThere is the obvious potency for sex favoritism in any frock codification, which sets different demands for work forces and adult females. Past claims have challenged policies thatadult females moldiness have on skirtswork forces should non hold long hairWork force must have on a comeband and tie.The instance of Matthew Thompson who objected to the frock codification impose by the Department for Work & A Pensions at his topographic point of work, a occupation Centre in Stockport, can besides be a good illustration. Mr Thompson claimed that the frock codification discriminated against male employees as they were coerce to have on a neckband and tie whereas female employees could have on Jerseies to work. The Employment Tribunal found in favor of Mr Thompson maxim that the frock codification was prejudiced as the demand to have on a neckband and tie was gender based and there were no points of vesture that were i mposed on adult females in the same office.From the Thompson instance, it became clear that employers should be careful in the manner that they draft their frock codifications. Employers are non prevented from enforcing frock codifications that require employees to have on specified points of vesture every bit long as the codification is drafted in such a manner as to be even-handed between work forces and adult females.For illustration, occupations in the City, the current convention is for both work forces and adult females to have on slips. The convention is that a adult male should have on a tie with a suit but the same does non use to a adult female. A frock codification necessitating a smart suit could use to both sexes but be enforced in a non-discriminatory mode appropriate for each sex.Religion/belief favoritism and frock codificationsA frock codification that requires employees to move in a manner black eye to their spiritual beliefs, hazards being indirectly prejudice d. Therefore, a frock codification prohibiting headdress will be prejudiced to male Sikhs, who must have on a turban.The vanquish manner to avoid these jobs is to be every bit non-specific as possible. A widely worded frock codification necessitating smart visual aspect, with non-binding illustrations of worthy frock, can non fall foul of specific clothing-related beliefs.To cross-check your frock codification against the chief faiths vesture beliefs, refer to Acas Guide on Religion and Belief which has a utile chart at Appendix 2 ( pages 40-50 ) .It whitethorn be possible for employers to objectively warrant a frock codification contrary to any of these beliefs, if it can be done so objectively. For illustration, employees at a cocoa mill were successfully prohibited from holding face funguss for wellness and safety grounds. However, employers should be really wary of trusting on nonsubjective justification as the tribunals are loath to accept it.There whitethorn be a inquiry g rade in several(prenominal) instances whether a individual s positions are beliefs. Harmonizing to Acas, Rastafarianism ( which requires the erosion of a hat ) is a belief system. Certain political beliefs or powerful sentiments such as nationalism ( the erosion of an American flag badge ) whitethorn or may non be regarded as beliefs. Employers should esteem beliefs that are potently held whether or non they are spiritual in nature.Disability favoritism and frock codificationsDisabled employees may non be able to follow with a frock codification, for illustration, an employee with a neck hurt unable to have on a tie. However, by and big, this demand non impact the manner the codification is drafted alternatively, employers should be sensitive in the enforcement of the frock codification.In drumhead, employers should be rather a spot flexible when make-up a policy on employee frock or visual aspect. conjectural flexibleness and sensitiveness to the employees racial differences should be allowed in the frock codification to do employees comfy and any struggle and jurisprudence suits, while run intoing the Trust criterion of Dress codification.This position is echoed by administrations such as Broker Network, which believes that employees should be able to do their ain judgements on what is best to have on.Many companies are now turning their dorsums on the construct of dress-down Fridays , choosing alternatively to ditch smart business-wear every twenty-four hours of the hebdomad. A study of 560 administrations has found that four out of five employers believe a more relaxed frock codification leads to greater productiveness. Nine out of 10 administrations that replied to the canvas by the Peninsula employment jurisprudence consultancy had declared ties an unneeded portion of their frock codification.DecisionThe issues discussed above create a challenge for HR professionals involved in employee focused branding undertakings, particularly those where empl oyees are expected to portion a specific set of values. That is that such enterprises will doubtless make a tenseness and potentially conflict with rules underlying an equality and diverseness docket. Ind s suggestion that inside-out stigmatization allows freedom and order remains unbelievable even when the employees are involved in building the trade name values. An administration that dictates a set of values for employees to internalize is still a homogenising force. Administration s that truly take diverseness programmes earnestly will hold to undertake this tenseness. One possible manner out of this distribute is to entangle equality and diverseness consciousness as a cardinal value included in the internal trade name proposition.RecommendationsAny guidelines should be carefully drafted, and employers are advised to handle any petitions to dress contrary to the company codification for spiritual or racial grounds with regard.Employers should chatter with the employee in inqu iry and discourse how to suit sensible petitions, and seek to slide by a favorable solution. A court will be more likely to be sympathetic to the employer where a policy is required for wellness and safety intents, instead than merely to keep a corporate image. dissolve what limitations on employees visual aspect are necessary and why. For illustration, instructors are expected to have on reasonable footwear, suited for the activities their occupation involves. Restrictions should non be undue or unreasonable, for case take a firm standing on suits or ties in the office when employees are non customer-facing.Set out the guidelines clearly, and include the teaching behind any limitations.Explain why limitations may be placed on some employees but non others ( for illustration, no organic complex body part piercing for those runing heavy machinery for wellness and safety intents, and those working within a cafe of a supermarket may hold stricter codifications enforced on them tha n those who work in the same shop, but do nt come into direct penetrate with nutrient ) .Give employees notice of when the policy will come into force. brook employees a grace period before training for non-compliance.Explain what will go on if employees are found to be in forbidding breach of the policy ( disciplinary action and, potentially, dismissal ) .Give the name of an person that employees can speak to if they feel they can non follow with the policy. actual statute law on issues that could take to favoritism should be reviewed from clip to clip, and staff enchiridion should be read by employment attorneies to guarantee conformity. Guidelines should besides be updated to suit the statute law.Base the policy on business-related grounds. Explain your grounds in the policy so employees understand the principle behind the limitations. Common business-related grounds include keeping the organisation s public image, advancing a productive work environment, or following with well ness and safety criterions.Require employees to hold an appropriate, well-dressed visual aspect. Even unconcerned frock policies should stipulate what vesture is inappropriate ( such as sweat suits, trunkss, and denims ) and any particular demands for employees who deal with the populace.Communicate the policy. Use employee enchiridions or memos to depress employees to the new policy, any alterations, and the punishments for disobedience. In add-on, explicate the policy to occupation campaigners.Use the frock codification policy uniformly to all employees. This can forestall claims that the policy adversely affects adult females or minorities. However, you may hold to do exclusions if required by jurisprudence. ( See following suggestion. )Make sensible adjustment when the solid ground of affairs requires an exclusion. Be prepared to suit petitions for spiritual patterns and disablements, such as caput coverings and facial hair.Apply consistent subject for frock codification mis demeanors. When training lawbreakers, point out why their garb does non follow with the codification and what they can make to followMentionsEdwards, M. R. ( 2008 ) Employees as a Focus of Branding Activities A surveil of Recent Contributions to the Literature and the Implications for Workplace Diversity, Equal opportunities international. Vol 27 ( 5 ) pp. 447-481 online operational from www.emerald.com Accessed 1 April 2009 Carrington, L ( 2007 ) EMPLOYER BRANDING Online ready(prenominal) from hypertext reassign protocol //globaltalentmetrics.com/articles/EB_2007_Brandempl.pdf Accessed 26 certify 2009 Wolff, C. ( 2007 ) Employers USE DRESS CODES TO ENHANCE CORPORATE IMAGE, IRS. Issue 878. forthcoming from hypertext polish off protocol //www.xperthr.co.uk Accessed 26 inch 2009 Downes, J. ( 2007 ) POLICY CLINIC DRESS CODES, online Available fromhypertext transfer protocol //0-www.xperthr.co.uk.lispac.lsbu.ac.uk/article/81919/policy-clinic dress-codes.aspx? searchwor ds=Policy+clinic % 3a+Dress+codes Accessed 26 March 2009 Millar, M ( 2006 ) EMPLOYERS RELAXING WORK DRESS CODE CAN serving IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY, online Available from hypertext transfer protocol //www.personneltoday.com/articles/2006/07/26/36558/employers-relaxing-work-dress-code-can-help-improve.html Accessed 26 March 2009 Dr. Sullivan, J ( 2008 ) EMPLOYMENT Stigmatization THE ONLY LONG-TERM RECRUITING STRATEGY, online Available from hypertext transfer protocol //www.drjohnsullivan.com/content/view/183/27/ Accessed 26 March 2009 Stephen Morrall, S & A Urquhart, C ( 2003 ) SEX DISCRIMINATION ARE DRESS CODES sexist? online Available from hypertext transfer protocol //www.drjohnsullivan.com/content/view/183/27/ Accessed 26 March 2009 Gronlund, J K ( 2008 ) HOW EMPLOYER BRANDINGCAN FOSTER TRUSTS AND LOYALTY? Online Available from hypertext transfer protocol //www.employerbrand.com/Points_pathf.html Accessed 26 March 2009

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Does rap and rock music cause increased violent or promiscuous behavior Essay

tilt and chip medicinal medicine sustain been perceived by some peck to be the ca phthisis of increase violent and other(a) anti- social carri come on especially to the untried people. both(prenominal) repugn that much(prenominal)(prenominal) science is an overstatement as there ar many other accompanimentors entire in human beings that precipitate their misbehaviors. Crime in caller is ca utilize by a wide variety of factors. fit to Michael Moore an Oscar award winner and generator of Bowling for Columbine, the system has been organized in a manner that it attracts and perpetuates offence in the society.The US has a record of so many deaths receivable to gun use. Extensive fear is landd on the masses. To Moore, the current killings atomic number 18 not cod to poverty, unemployment or diversity in ethnicity. The mass media elicit be goddam for the situation. It is prudent for instilling in the peoples mind that madness is appropriate. Development of a g un culture is to a fault to blame for the increase killings. It is very effortless to access and own a gun in US. The system has enabled extensive gun ownership on the grounds of self-defense. (Moore M, 2002) all the same, this viewpoint is contradictory as other countries hold back easy access and ownership of guns but they do not experience the grade of killings that the US faces. The blame could be fix on action movies, stone stars with their melody and video games but other societies have this too. Rock artists a want(p) Marilyn Manson do not agree that medical specialty is to blame for increased deaths. Marilyn is blamed on the increased violence especially in schools. Though the medicinal drug does not in reality cause the death per ser it instills hostility in the children minds as it could be misinterpreted.Parents are failing in their section to raise responsible children. It is irresponsible to delegate the guidance role to the media. Guidance ought to be habit uated to such children so that they hindquarters rationally sieve what is right from what is wrongly from the media. Inequalities between the rich and the poor is a clear problem in the US where by more than concerns are raised when the rival is on the rich. It creates the impression that poor is worthless and deserves no detect. Proponents of stroke medical specialty symphony argue that rap medicinal drug does not in any circumstance expect or direct people to choose violence.Liability to distinguish what is spurious or fiction from accreditedity would allure to more youths being tenanted in crime or other anti-social behavior. People should be rational enough to see the resolution of their behavior on the society at large. (Moore M, 2002) Some rap symphony salutes women as the weaker sex and they are viewed as prostitutes to be used as sexual objects. Some artists can be bad bend though not all. The generalization that all careen or rap music causes criminal a ctivities is an understatement as some blither on reputes and morals that are requisite for good citizenship. belt music can encourage promiscuous behavior especially because intimately artists use vulgar language on sensitive issues and they to a fault portray nude women. Some teenagers whitethorn identify themselves with the women in such movies or videos resulting to increased promiscuity. Women in such movies who are depicted as whores do so to earn their living and they cannot be crucified for that. Respective government ought to spiel hard to improve their system to accommodate more people in the job market. (Wingwood et al, 551) The youthful generation is thrilled by the entertainment sector.medicine influences behavior regardless the age gender or ethnicity. Greater impact is on those with little or no determined values. Some rappers are rented cool and are consequently very influential on attitudes on fashion, sex and violence. Poor children or youngsters from the mi nority groups pretermit proper role models as they grow up. They may turn to music for values clo spill and identification. Parents should install morals on their children so that the music has no infinite for that. Homes that are not well organized contribute to change in internalizing morals.Bad company at school and the teenagers assailable to vulgar training are more likely to engage in sexual activities at an earlier stage. as yet this viewpoint is counteracted by the argument that those who allow music to form their reasoning were initially doctored. This is to say that rap music would add up promiscuous behavior to those already in that capacity. (Anderson A et al, 90) Rock music has since a long time ago been associated with the youth and antisocial behavior like rebellion. It was initially meant to create more awareness in the society.Rock and roll was feared to promote aggression, bigotry deviant sexual behavior, homicide and drug use. dab music has its roots in the African music and wherefore viewed as rising to fit their appropriate needs or to raise their needs. cut off music has been blamed for not only degrading women but also for the increased sexual behavior among youngsters. This has other works like unloved pregnancies and spread of diseases. Increased sexual behavior could be due to the quarrel used in the songs as well as the obscene pictures. manpower are portrayed as sexually insatiable and sex is seen as inconsequential. Teenagers may act on the messages communicated, as they are very ad hoc on the sex roles. Girls repeatedly exposed to these songs are likely to aim submissive roles and allow the disrespectful treatment from their break outners. Boys are likely to interiorize the portrayed roles of exploiting girls and trade such acts as normal. (Stephens D & Few L, 251) security review would be inappropriate for the young adults but parents should offer guidance to their children as a step to install morals. audito ry modality to their side of story so that the communication is 2-way would help them better understand the satisfy of such music and gum olibanum enable them react accordingly. Although allowing the African America musicians to have a voice was a way of accepting and respecting the views of a minority race, the content of their songs was alarming and raised much attention. Exposure to these songs before children are of age will have detrimental effects on the children. (Hayes G, 12)According to a research by Ralph J.Diclementle, PHD of Emory University School of ordinary health, girls who listened to rap music or watched rap videos were more likely to indulge in anti-social behavior. (Fox R, 2) Many teenagers are attracted to hip hop and rap music especially from artists like Kanye west, shit Dogg and Timbaland. The hip hop music is inviting due to its beats and tricky rhythms. Rap music consists of more rhymes and poetry. Hip hop is more attractive because the beats are attr active. Most of the teenagers are attracted by the beats and the fact that it is danceable.The lyrics are also quite catchy. Rap music can have positive effects on the listeners for warrant it can cause a creative mindset and incorporate varied styles and trends. Rock music is favorite to people of all ages. Its beats, lyrics and tones attract a number of people. Many parents disuse hip hop music and link it with discrimination against women, bad influence and violence. However many parents accommodate rock music because they are familiar with it as most of them grew up with it. Rock music is not as danceable as hip hop and most people sing it along or listen to it.Hard rock is loud and like mostly by the young people while many due to its softness prefer soft rock. Rappers are accused of not producing flavour music since they do not emphasize on information or educative music. They instead of clearing the stereotype reinforce it by their music for instance Notorious BIGs son g that he is considered a fool because he drowse offped out of high school others claim to drop out of school for the big wallets. They offer confusing information to the young generations who may think that there is an easy way of life.This could precipitate violence when such people become over ambitious but lack the room to attain their goals. However not all rap artists throw out education, some like J- Live who was previously a teacher knows the value of education and instills it to his listeners through his music. Unlike BIG, J-live tells the young to load their brains. (Johnson J et al, 30) Some rap music can be beneficial. It teaches people using real life experience. This way people can be able to stop from other peoples mistakes or good deeds and hence respond accordingly.Some rap artists warn on the effects of drug use while insisting on the advantages of hard work. This instills on the teenager or youths the importance of hard work. It can be inspirational as it tell s of never quitting regardless of the tough times a head. Gangster rap portrays the way of life in the urban nature, which is at times violent. It tries to impose that to survive in this kind of environment people need to consider their own self interests which at times entails taking the law in their hands. Money and power are portrayed as basis for respect in society.Gangsta rap praises the evildoer who does not abide to laws or regulation. It results to increased violence because it seems to praise or support crime, drug and killings. (Anderson A et al, 965) The answers to whether rap music appropriates behavior depend on who is answering it. Supporters of rap like the artists would claim that their music only portrays what is actually happening in the society. However the effect of rap music on behavior is similar to the effects of pornography and video games. Lack of evidence that rap music actually results to violence or promiscuous behavior makes the claim quite weak.These m usic creates a resigned mode where there seems to be no hope for society due to an adamant attitude towards social change. It could have positive impacts if people thought of what became of their society and what can be done to improve. The rap music containing violence may affect youths behavior it may create a greater acceptance of the use of violence where they embracement it as a way of life or something normal. Rappers advocate for their songs by saying that being silent to the highest horizontal surface what is actually happening in the society does not solve the problem.To them the music is a reflection of the frustration and pain that is faced in the ghetto-life. music artists are viewed as heroes and teenagers, yen to be like them. Some end up committing suicide, homicide on public shootings to prove they can be like their heroes. Research has showed that excessive motion-picture show to sexual activity influences the teens perception to sex and this could lead to more indulgence in risky and sexual activities. melody does affect peoples behavior in many ways including the subconscious mind and consequently influences peoples view on the society. Music can be used to alter moods.Just as it is used to encourage or motivate athletes it can increase violence. To the rappers the music reflects, distills and amplifies the social realities at its primary or basic level and then reincorporates it into that reality. To them the outsiders or those away from the ghetto cannot understand them since the do not understand their plight. The society has hold inequalities that have adverse effects on its people. Teenagers who listen to lots of music especially rap which may consist of degrading sexual messages are more likely to start sex indulgence earlier than their counterparts without such exposure.Rock and rap artists are at times convicted of violence. For instance sight Dogg had an incidence with the law enforcement officers due to violence. Since the young people may consider him a hero they may indulge in violent activities to emulator him. A research by a Rand Corporation and published by the American Journal of Public Health, found that insubstantials who listened more to this music progressed fast into indulging to sexual behavior than those who did not listen to such music. Listening to such music affects all adolescents regardless of their gender or ethnicity.Music therefore plays an important role in the psyche of young adults. (Barongan C & Hall GCN,195) A research also showed that teenage African American girls who were exposed to rap videos or music were more likely to call out alcohol and engage in promiscuous behavior. Their body image would be negative and the chances of having multiple partners could be higher. Greater awareness and education is needed on the risks involved or associated to the media exposure. Evidence of more African American involved in violent or criminal behavior can be seen in their number s in prison.Rap artists are sinful to some when they talk of women degradation when they boast of having enough women at their disposal. The adolescent age is where teenagers are establishing their identity and the kind of music they listen to affects their identity. peer influence reinforces the trend of music teenagers will be accustomed to. another(prenominal) aspect that rap music portrays is killing of the police and black-to-black violence where killing-using guns is deemed appropriate. It is considered racial music that tries to fight corruption and discrimination from the dominant white society.The participation so created is hopeless and results to drugs violence and promiscuity, which in turn results to teen pregnancy. (Anderson A et al, 85) Several scholars doctors and researchers did the culture on African American women in 1996-1999 and the effect of music. Girls exposed to rap music were more likely to take drugs, have problems with the law and are prone to sexual ly transmitted diseases. According to the researchers, girls who were more exposed to rap music were more likely to hit a teacher, get arrested and have sex with multiple partners.Parents failure to monitor lizard the teens and the frustrations of lack of job opportunities precipitated the violence further. (Wingwood G & Disclemente L, 433) Sociologists have also established that music affects the health, attitudes and behavior of teenagers. They not only listen to the music but also live it. Music is used to express ideas or narrate stories. On average teens listen to music approximately 40 hours in a week. The hours daily provide ample time to change their perception about life. Not all teens understand what the music really means and different teens have varied meanings to the words in such songs.Censoring such music to protect the innocent teenagers would not bear much fruit. This is because it would be faced by much protects on the grounds of hindering or being against the fre edom of expression rights. Again, even when the music is not compete in the radio stations it is still played elsewhere and thus it is still accessible. Due to peer influence it would be hard to monitor and prohibit what ones children listen to. An appropriate measure would be to explain the consequences of what the music is all about and engage the children in little thinking.For music to have a positive or negative effect on an individual, the individual must have a certain degree of affinity in it. Personal choice forms a critical part in such decision-making. However, the use of visuals reinforces what is heard. Studies show that rap music could affect mens perception towards women to the extent where after women are assault they could argue that the women provoked the men by way of dressing. A study carried out in a college campus in the U. S where men and women were exposed to rap music both hard and soft that involved questionnaires on their perception to songs that were g ender biased.Men were proved to react more to stereotypes after exposure to such music and videos. Women proved to be more accommodative and submissive to the male. Words commonly raised include bitches and whores and this attracts the attention of quite a number of people. Exposure to rap music comprises of violence for instance murder. (Cole J & Gy Shefall, 40) In 2000, the American academy of pediatrics issued a join statement on the effects of violence through entertainment means on children. It made this conclusion connection between aggressive lineament and violence in the media.In the studies reports were made from the general office as well as the mental health department that the government should put in place policies that would protect its people, as the media violence would ruin it. (AAPCC, 315) According to Leonard a psychologist the effects of violence of the TV and aggression is cumulative. The effect of rap music leads to aggression in ones later life. However it is difficult to tell if music actually influences sexual promiscuity, drug use or violent behavior in cases where the teens do not dig up the meaning of the lyrics.