Tuesday, April 30, 2019

A Comparison of Moon River Breakfast at Tiffany's Essay

A Comparison of Moon River Breakfast at Tiffanys - Essay ExampleThis essay focuses on Breakfast at Tiffanys, that is a 1961 American film starring Audrey Hepburn and George Peppard. Also in the cast are Patricia Neal, Buddy Ebsen, Martin Balsam, and Mickey Rooney. It was directed by Blake Edwards and released by Paramount Pictures. The film is loosely based on the novella of the same name by Truman Capote. The screenplay was written by playwright and screenwriter George Axelrod, perhaps surmount known for his play, The Seven Year Itch. This essay not only describes the plot of a movie, its actors and creators, but overly explores the role of music in the film. The researcher compares three readings of one song, named Moon River in the essay - version sung by Andy Williams, version of Moon River sung by Audrey Hepburn and version of Moon River in the legitimate soundtrack. The researcher then gives comparison and analysis of the recordings. Criteria that he used are the following overall style, tempo, dynamics, instrumentality and expression of each one recording. In conclusion, the researches states that among these 3 different versions, he believes that the Williams version was the most successful. It begins at a more lively speed than the others, and the performer sings the lyrics strongly and meaningfully. He continues that way until the conclusion of the song. The mechanic follows the description of a satisfying finish to a song as described by Deborah beer mug in a 2005 essay The strongest ending , she says, is the full, or authentic cadence.

Monday, April 29, 2019

Role of magazines in the 21st century and how has their form changed Essay

Role of magazines in the 21st century and how has their form changed physically and has this involved a change in the content of blameless sweetheart - Essay ExampleAmerican women responded well to the idea of readymade clothing. The ready to wear industry flourished with the uphold of bearing advertising. growth of the style saw the change of the concept of perfect beauty from the open ingenuous look to the exposure of such(prenominal) skin. Other online fashion magazines like the Dwell and Martha Stewart were introduced whose concept of ultimate beauty was majored on body features, the slim and trim hipped-woman. As opposed to the audience in vogue and Hapers bazar, who are mostly conservative in nature, theirs was a revolutionary woman who exposed most of her skin.Evolution of the fashion in America took many shapes as many designers resulted to designing several(predicate) types of clothes. Givenchy dressed Audrey Hepburn her fashion presented the feeling of taller, hig h, covering high top-knots, long legs, small, midriffs, pretty legs and exquisite clothes. This fashion sense revolutionized to Pierre cardin who exemplified fashion in the school girl look which depicted the perfect young girl look that was simple and portraying the feminine figure. Later, Courreges presented the futuristic space-age collection which had suits, dresses and trousers which were more sculpted as opposed to being sewn. This presented the ripe look of the mid-sixties. American designers started designed topless bathing suit which was known as the monobikini and the following course of study he designed lingerie and consequently seamless dresses. This fashion special influence was the exposure of much skin.The introduction of the internet and the Web 2.0 has enabled many people to make out information faster and also share their photographs. This has made many photos of celebrities to be available for copying and enumeration. Such information is shared in different so cial media like twitter and Instagram. The fashion sense from 2003 and 2013 has changed very much with more

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Business Enterprise and Cultural Enrichment Essay

problem Enterprise and Cultural Enrichment - Essay ExampleA number of impacts are realized when argumentes participate in the championing of beneficial and beneficial cultural practices. Cultural enrichment influences positively on the growth of the traffic if the business offers its scoop with regard to the cultures of its surrounding. However, not all cultures practiced in the surrounding of business premises will crap an enabling environment. Managers and different senior personnel should investigate and re-evaluate the implications of a single cultural practice before arriving at decisions of determining whether resources of the business are to be used in popularizing and sensitizing clients concerning the culture (Schumacher, 2011). Cultures that evanesce information, which dissuades people from consuming definite brands constituting the business stock, should be avoided since their effects are counterproductive. If such cultures are popularized, the business will reali ze loses that may put the enterprises future in higher risks that may lead to closure, relocation, or even retrenchment some of its workers (Schumacher, 2011). A business enterprise can input towards improving and retaining certain cultures in numerous ways. For instance, through carrying out campaigns geared towards instilling public awareness. This can be through with(p) by public address systems mounted on vehicles that go around imparting information into the people. On these vehicles, renowned cultural icons (traditional artists) must be given top priority to talk to the public active the business and the need for culture and its existence (Schumacher, 2011). Additionally, the business can contribute to cultural growth by selling of music enriched with the sounds from cultural, musical instruments. Businesses like those of fashioning designing should sell garments that do not class the culture of the people. For example, a business selling clothing in a region where scarves make the edict of the day should include this in their stock. Projects geared towards improving and enriching the culture of the people should be investigated by the business so as to identify with the achievements brought to the people by such programs. The business should in any case contribute intensively to the planting of crops that are used to praise and adore the lord almighty for instance. The business can also come up with laws that do not discriminate workers. Such laws should be consistence with the peoples cultural practices, and they should also create a homely working environment by boosting performance and other merits in the duties and assignments to be accomplished (Schumacher, 2011). Performances of the employees are directly influenced by the kind of working environment created by their employers or organizations hence it is the obligation of the business to meet employees needs. Besides other requirements, employees deserve rules that are hospitable to their cultural practices in order for them to deliver accordingly. The approach towards work can be compromised if the employee has to sacrifice many of his cultural practices for the sake of work. Society has other ceremonies that call for the participation of every person who is part of it. On such days, the business is compelled to disobeying the demands of the community otherwise, it might experience a reduction in sales (Schumacher, 2011). somewhat cultures determine or dictate how a business enterprise within them

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Persuasive Memo Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Persuasive Memo - Research Paper ExampleLexington has a level-headed population of African and Hispanic community which is a cause for rise of accessible crime in the society. As per ( City Rating,2013)In 2010 the city ruffianly crime rate in Lexington was high than the violent crime rate in Kentucky by 136.81% and the city puritanicalty crime rate in Lexington was higher than the property crime rate in Kentucky by 44%.The young Africans and Hispanics are more into snapper abuse and crimes as poverty and accessible ignorance lead them to this. It is the obligation and responsibility of Corporate like frosty stream laboratories to perform activities that can upgrade the community and flock living it. So a social awareness spunk would bring youth who are misled together and enhance their knowledge about drug abuse and criminal activities. They will be guided to stop addictive substances and lead life which is procreative and beneficial. Operation of Social Awareness centre The operation of the social awareness starts with establishing a building in a right location with facilities haveed for it. The next all-important(a) thing is appointment of right professionals in the centre. A social awareness centre must(prenominal) have more of voluntary workers who are shrill on social support work. Only important therapists and medical experts expect to be hired with pay. The social awareness centre must operate on a daily basis and should consider people from all social backgrounds. People should be given assistance free of cost and the quality of utility should be of highest standard. The centre should be operating from morning to evening and would not work round the clock. hygiene must be of highest priority at all times. The operation of the social awareness centre must be in an organized manner and the all the details of the people getting the service need to be recorded. It is also the duty of the volunteer social workers to find people who need t he service .The centre must have all the records and activities being monitored by a managerial head that would also fashion out for any discrepancies. The centre needs to have different therapy which deals with different issues. The people coming in would be examine first for their problems and then the needed service will be provided. According to ( Brooks, 2013) A top priority for many organizations today is corporate social responsibility, which focuses on how businesses deal with their environmental, social and economic impacts. Implementation of Social Awareness Centre Implementing the program starts with a blue print of the centre and proper planning of the staff needed and the working system. A business plan is the foundation in implementing a corporate social responsibility program. Measurable targets needs to be set along with performance standards. The commitments need to be strategized and employees need to hand over responsibilities. The needs of the local community need to be analyzed and decision needs to be made accordingly. The senior management needs to finalize the goals and strategies of the program. According to (Hohnen, 2007) When implementing a CSR strategy, companies should recognize and respect local and cultural differences, while maintaining high and consistent global standards and policies. It is very important to make decisions regarding the financial and human resources needed for the program. The code of conduct, guidelines of the centre needs to be established. Responsibility and chest of the employees

Friday, April 26, 2019

Dutchtown High School Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Dutchtown High School - Research musical composition ExampleThere are a number of classes that are offered at Dutchtown middle school even though either the students are encouraged to take the entire four major lessons, which are attainment social studies, math, and English. The school also provides an opportunity to get into an in-state university. The schools motto is to provide an environment of excellence where all students can become lifelong learners and productive citizens. In addition, the school also offers courses in United States history, studio imposture 2d-design, biology, computer science, art history, calculus Ab & Bc, chemistry, English language and composition , politics, studio art drawing, US government, English literature, world history, European history and physics. The state of Louisiana has an enrollment of 703,309 students while the attendance rate for the year 2010-2011 was 94.8% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). However, the in-school suspension rate for the year 2010-2011 was 9.6% while the percentage of classes taught by passing qualified teachers for the same year was 88.8%. The expenditure per student was $10,622. The state ranked in a course of instruction of 91.8 in 2010, which is a 2 star rank and 93.3 in 2011, which is a grade C ranking (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). ... n.However, the area where the school is located is vulnerable to hurricanes and the tropical systems since the area is lowly elevated, and has a tightfitting location to the coast of southeast Louisiana. The town lies 23 feet above the sea level, which is slightly lower than most(prenominal) areas of United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). Geismar in turn is located in Louisiana, a state found in the US, which is found in the southern region. The state of Louisiana is among the most extensive and populous states of the United States. This has contributed greatly in cause the demographics patterns of Ducthtown High School in that the school boasts of a large population of students and teachers. The clean ratio of students to teacher is 251, which is actually a moderate ratio. The capitals of Louisiana are found in Baton Rouge whereas the largest city in that state is New Orleans. One interesting policy-making accompaniment is that the state of New Orleans is the only state in the US whereby the three are political subdivisions known as parishes. Dutchtown High School is located in Ascension Parish. These parishes are the equivalents of counties in many a(prenominal) other US states (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). Ethnically, the state of Louisianas urban environments is a multi-cultural environment and multi-lingual surroundings. The states heritage is by far shaped and influenced by the admixture of 18th century,Native American, African,and Spanish cultures. Cultures and ethnicity are considered colossal in the US statistics, which have also played a major role in shaping the schools ethnicity and cultural heritage. This multi cultur es were contributed largely by the colonial history of this state whereby the French and the Spanish colonized it counselling before the British took over colonizing America.

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Differences between War Crimes, Acts of Genocide and Crimes against Essay

Differences between War Crimes, Acts of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity - set about ExampleIn order to successfully offer a distinction it is important to identify what all(prenominal) means in international law. It is important to note that Crimes against Humanity to be precise are by and large vague by definition in numerous legally authoritative commentaries (Trahan & Human Rights Watch, 2006). Acts of Genocide on the other wad are clear in many statutes while the former has many interpretations depending on which statute star is referring to. This abide be attributed to their history and how each developed as an internationally recognized offense. Acts of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity emanated primarily from the Nuremberg trials where they were utilised as synonyms. It is important to note that these crimes had their roots after the homo War II when the international community wanted the Nazi regime in Germany to be held accountable for the atrocities it had c ommitted during the war. Discussions were held by the United Nations from 1947 to 1948 before the adoption of a definition of genocide. Crimes against Humanity are wrong conducts towards civilians or distinct groups of people for example murder, enslavement, sexual violence among other inhumane acts regardless of whether the adduce in question was at war and regardless whether the acts were against that states laws at the time of committal. These crimes can be committed by anyone ranging from state officials to individuals towards their own nationals or foreigners. Genocide on the other hand has a smaller definition which is an act perpetrated by state nationals or individuals with the intention to destroy a religious, national, racial or ethnic group irrespective of whether the state is at peace or at war (Schabas, 2000 Boot, 2002). War Crimes on the other hand are acts perpetrated at the time of armed participation which are against international laws governing the rule of law . These acts include mistreatment of civilian populations and people exploitation through wring or executions. War Crimes have been around for a longer period than genocide or Crimes against Humanity. legion(predicate) civilisations around the world have had their share of controls that governed their warfare. In China for example, those at war were strictly proscribe to strike an elderly enemy fighter or further harm an injured enemy or opponent. Further restrictions were in regards to treatment of captives or prisoners of war. They were to be well treated so as to be used later for the captors benefit. Some of these rules contributed to the definitions stipulated above under the international law. It should also be noted that define War Crimes has been a problem especially when instilling punishment (Schabas, 2008). It is a fact that in war solders are instructed or even ordered to kill with methods of doing so having some restrictions. Some contradictions often become in det ermining War Crimes circumstances for example where a soldier kills their victims during war and are penalise for it. Another is where planes engage in mass bombing of cities killing many innocent lives and no one is held accountable for it. These and more are some of the dilemmas that challenge the implementation of international law in various(a) nations. The notion of Crimes against Humanity As earlier mentioned, Crimes against Humanity are rarely defined in many authoritative commentaries. The Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia and that of Rwanda brought to the fore the graveness of lack of definite meanings for the Crimes against Humanity (Meron, 1994 Akhavan, 1996). The reason for this was that the statutes establishing these tribunals

Discuss the role of the Emergency Manager and the Fundamentals of Essay - 1

Discuss the region of the Emergency Manager and the Fundamentals of Emergency Management - Essay lawsuitIn other words, misadventure mitigation and risk-reduction measures atomic number 18 needed for a good response.However, one must realize (and be realistic enough) that most disasters cannot be seen in advance or forecasted with any(prenominal) tip of certainty. From an essential response perspective, it can be said there are no real measures of conquest (if based on the number of lives saved or in the minimization of damage) but one should incessantly look at each disaster as something unique that cannot be neatly categorized. What is meant here is that disasters are chaotic fonts and luck is a big part of the outcome. A disaster is not a linear-progression event that can predicted with high degree of precision and therefore is hard for anyone to control completely. Moreover, disasters can easily leave out into a catastrophe if the wrong response is employed (like in J apan).This portion talks about the role of the emergency manager and the fundamentals of any emergency management program. It is vital to know these two things for any disaster response to be effective in terms of limiting the damage, saving lives and in the recovery efforts after.Role of Emergency Manager the primary role of the emergency manager is to prepare a crowd for a disaster, whether man-made or natural disasters. In this regard, the manager must implement a disaster preparedness plan to help the people prepare, devise an early warning sign or schema to notify people in advance (this is also to prevent panic resulting from rumors and the usual miscommunication in an emergency situation). For this, the manager must put into place a crisis communications plan as a preventative measure and at the same as a pro-active orientation. This team should be composed of the highest local ex officio (or a designated alternate) who can make the decisions, members of the team who ca n be contacted and authorized to disseminate vital data and also designate a chief of an Incident Command System (ICS) put

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Capstone Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Capstone - Essay ExampleSome of them have too highlighted the cause of the US- Iraq war and related matters for initiating such scare attacks. India is reportedly known to produce more films relating to such matter compared to any other countries (Altheide, 135). The conveyed message clearly is same for these openhearteds of depictions. Thus every individuals belonging to Islam worship should not be looked upon as terrorists and tortured or killed. The paper intends to support such an argument by making a thematic analysis of some of the well known Bollywood movies picturized upon portrayal of Islam in the States after the 9/11 terror attacks. The violence and bloodshed associated with 9/11 terror attacks that caused the analyze of World Trade Center was so huge that many would find it really difficult to describe. grade 9/11 attacks Arabian nationality and Islam religion have become a historical phenomenon. Media particularly Bollywood plastic film has always considered po rtrayal of Muslims as a topic of great interest. Using the mass influential spring of media Bollywood has taken this opportunity to make cinemas representing the Islamic followers above the villains or bad guys and has claimed for accepting the sinlessness of ordinary followers of Islam (Balraj). Some of the cinemas on such a theme are My found in Khan, New York, Kurbaan and Tere Bin Laden. Bollywood Cinema and Portrayal of Islam in America The movie My Name Is Khan directed by Karan Johar is a story of a Muslim guy named Rizwan Khan who has go through struggles right from his childhood for his disabilities and mainly because of his identity of following the Islam religion. His journey for meeting the president has been highlighted in the movie where he encounters misbehavior and strip checking on account of being a Muslim. My Name is Khan and I am not a terrorist has been the tagline of the movie appealing to the Americans to accept the innocence of followers of Islam. The them e of betrothal of innocence for the Muslims has been established in this movie at the tremendous torture and losses that Islamic large number have suffered post 9/11 terror attacks. The terror incident had developed a kind of hatred for the people with Islam religion but such an anti Muslim violence hurting hundreds of simple people have been claimed as a complete senseless act (Dhume). The overreaction of the Americans after the 9/11 terror attacks has been shown in another Bollywood movie New York released in 2009 under the banner of Yash Raj Films. The torture to the innocents obviously because of being followers of Islam religion has been the base of the storyline. It is true that Americans after these terror attacks have haunted hundreds of Muslim lives in the name of investigation. The torture and misbehavior in jail that has been portrayed against Islam followers in this Bollywood is unendurable even on television screen. It is a tragedy that hundreds of innocent Muslim p eople actually tolerated all this during conviction. Bollywood cinema has been able to gather sympathy for the Muslim people through such touching and tragic movies. Mass opinion has been in favor of the fact that treatment of Islam and their followers after such terror attacks is a national shame for Americans. The movies highlighting the political views on terrorism

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

248789_diversity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

248789_diversity - Essay Examplenot plainly includes the traditional categories of race and gender but also people with disabilities, gays & lesbians and other non-traditional categories considered having diversity of thought or those from the different disciplines, college degrees, socio-economic backgrounds etc.It was Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. who inspired the concept of diversity when he advocated that people should be judged by their character, not by the color of their skin. This propelled lawmakers to come up with laws that leave equal opportunity to all. (MOR BARAK, M. E., 2000)These laws take aim been designed protect anyone from being discriminated against by reason of sex, marital status, ethnic or national origin, color, race, nationality, age, disability, religion, and differing hurt of employment, including pay for jobs of equal value.As of directly, an escalating number of European firms be implementing diversity and equality strategies not further for dogmad and legal reasons but also for the trade benefits they are anticipated to deliver. Amongst the most imperative of these benefits are enhanced employee recruitment and employee retention from a broad pool of superior quality workforce, better merged icon and repute, better innovation and improved promotion opportunities.The term Equal opportunity refers to a office where a person is entitled to equal access in society. Equal opportunities approach is premised on the principle that all people are eligible to avail certain rights or privileges like education, employment, health upkeep or other welfare services without any discrimination or any preference. Different organizations now apply various equal opportunity practices which consist of a number of means adopted to provide fair conditions for all their members in the process of employment and work. (GILL KIRTON, A. M. G., 2000) This current trend of the embracing of diversity has given birth to the concept of the inclusive

Monday, April 22, 2019

Nutrition in Infancy Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Nutrition in Infancy - Assignment Example later on an assessment, the public nurse reveals no acute distress and normal signs as per the limit of age with the afoot(predicate) length and weight of 68cm and 6.6 kg respectively. This paper will provide a detailed medical check-up of the refresh of systems, physical assessments and develop a care plan for the infant, including diagnosis, treatment, referral, education, and patient follow-up.The nine-month visit provides an opportunity for the healthcare provider to assess the childs health and teach care gestaters how to ensure their future health. It is important first to ask the history from the parents/caregivers in order to first determine the medical history and evaluate any medications taken. In this case, examination of the nutrition is paramount to a childs health as at this moment, children take a formula and soft foods. In order to determine the nutritional wellness of the child, a historical analysis of bowel movements is important. Babies are expected to have at least 2 bowel movements and steady their diapers 4-6 times in a day.Nursing diagnoses is characterized by psychosocial data, daily routines, and living patterns. Thus, medical history essential take into consideration data collection of economic issues that directly or indirectly impact on the quality of an infants quality of daily living. At this stage, assessing the history of the development of the child would be important in determining their ability to talk, imitate any vocals, make movements with their legs, hands and bottom, pick and/or drop objects, play, show feelings and record any eruption of teeth, prompting the recap of the childs ears and eyes. The review of systems would include conducting a screening visual exam of the eyes to inspect and view the structural due north of the eye and its response to light. In addition, the ears should be screened to prove that the child demonstrates the

Sunday, April 21, 2019

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY - Assignment ExampleFrom both excel, and the formulae, the miserly is 50.8, which is different from the mode and the median, which be 58 and 57, respectively. However, the figures are roughly close to each other covering that is spent over 50 minutes everyday in physical fitness activities.The numbers are lower than I expected since I work out for a whole hour every day. This means that I spend a couple of minutes in switching from superstar body process to a nonher. The time I spend in switching from one activity to another and the time I spend on different physical fitness activities add up to sixty minutes per day.The intimately effective measure of the central tendency, as far as the mean, median, and mode is the mean. This is because of the fact that it utilizes 100 share of all the data in the sample (Walpole, 2010). The other measures of central tendencies, including the median and mode do not utilize all the information provided. Mean helps in performing further mathematical calculations thus dowery in conducting more statistical tests. For example, it helps in the calculation of standard deviation, variances, as well as, significance tests. Additionally, it has an algebraic definition (Bertsekas, 2002). The mean is applicable in the probability theory to generate probability distributions. Such distributions do not utilize other measures of central tendencies including the median and the mode. Mean as well has some weaknesses, for example, the front end of outliers in the data lowers its accuracy. Its strengths, as a measure of central tendency, outweigh its weaknesses.To draw the box plot, one utilizes the 25th centile, the 50th percentile, and the 75th percentile. The 25th percentile is the lowest score, which is greater than 25 percent of the scores. use excel, the 25th percentile is 41. This means that the highest figure of the first 25 percent of the data is 41. The 50th percentile is equal to the median.

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Business report on Emaar Properties PJSC Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Business cross on Emaar Properties PJSC - Essay ExampleIt has not just shaped landscapes and built homes but also has essential and master-planned value added communities that has been commensurate to satisfy the lifestyle needs of a diverse customers. Emaar Properties today is the leader in real estate and construction sector in The Emirate. Today the comp any has its presence globally which is a result of its expansion strategy. The company has expanded geographically and at the same time has been able to plane section its business into numerous industries (Emaar.ae, 2010). The numerous business segments of Emaar Properties are Emaar Hotels & Resorts Emaar Commercial Leasing Emaar Technologies Emaar Retail Emaar Malls chemical group Emaar Hospitality Group Emaar International was launched in 2004 to diversify the business. With this strategic move the company has been able to sustain the growth as it is not dependent on a single market. Even though the companys main(prenomina l) focus is North Africa, Middle East and the Indian subcontinent the company has its presence in UK, US and other(a) western countries (Emaar.ae, 2010). The following diagram shows the companys global presence (Emaar.com, 2007) This report is targeted analysing the organizations basic legal, social, and economic environments.... It is very important as it defines the framework under which an organization must operate. As Emaar Properties is operational in numerous countries, the company must look into each country independently and agnise the legal environment in the specific country. Emaar Properties has done well to adapt to legal environments of different countries. It has do necessary changes to its organizational structure to abide by the laws in each country. With respect to the parent country, Emaar Properties has been able establish a strong relationship with the government of UAE. The legal system in UAE has accommodated both newfangled and classical concepts. It has a innovative legal structure and at the same time has been able to adjudge the traditional values intact. The government of UAE has promoted and tried to reform the overall structure of the country with intent to providing the citizens with modern amenities at an affordable cost and the best services. Emaar Properties has aligned its business model on these lines which has helped it to make great success in a short time. Emaar Propertys business model is aimed at providing the best services at effective prices to the citizens. Its numerous services such as building of homes, lodge centres, hospitality, malls, education, etc have all contributed to the development of the country and hence, the company has received full backing from the government. Emaar Properties has a coalition with the government wherein 32% of the shares in the company is held by the government. This has tremendously helped the company to understand and tackle any legal issues. This also shows how the

Friday, April 19, 2019

Gulf War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Gulf War - Essay ExampleIn military terms, the campaign in the Persian Gulf was extremely successful because it stands out in the staggering low number of combat casualties. The concretion forces achieved complete superiority in air, at sea and on land with minimal losses however, politically the outcome of the gulf war is specifically contentious. In the immediate sense, Kuwaits stolen sovereignty was restored with the Al-Sabah family fix up back in power and UNs aims being fulfilled. From the regional perspective, the impact of the war had profound strategical scotch as well as political consequences for instance, the strategic price of allowing the intervention of the US resulted in closer ties with some nations in the region. Deployment of Allied forces Following the coalition war and the associated deterioration in the economic and health conditioned in the sylvan saw Saddams reputation suffer decline. ... late(a) history is full of instances where in military terms politi cians seek to power strategic outcomes wrongly comparable in the case of Grenada and Vietnam. However, in 1991 political leaders in that period seemed cautious of transgressing the mark from content to political meddling compared to their involvement in Vietnam. At the meter the US president, George Bush together with the countrys secretarial assistant of defence Richard Cheney were determined to allow the professionals run the war and shun micromanagement of the battlefield. At the time of the war, it was essential for the US to convey messages that gulf war was never a US unilateral adventure. To award this, it relied in large part on making and maintaining the multinational coalition of troop from different nations specially the Arab states. Moreover, the accomplishment of intended defence for Saudi Arabia and later on the liberation of Kuwait were based on tangential coalition right of entry to Saudis territory on which to base the operations. However, thither were notewor thy concerns of an Arab state acting as a staging base for the primarily western onset against an Arab state. An Australian general played a supportive role to the mission of USs secretary to Saudi Arabia to persuade the King at the time on the significance of defending the country against the Iraqi aggression. At the time, the Middle East political setting was undergoing dramatic change and accepting the easy office out in appeasing Saddam could alter it to the advantage of Saudi Arabia and its allies. Besides, to side with western powers against some other Arab state was risky undertaking because it had

The New York Public schools and New York Charter Schools Dissertation

The modernistic York Public directs and New York wage Schools - Dissertation ExampleAlthough there is a perception (generally) that the education in charter schools are vastly different than those in in the public eye(predicate) schools, this research seeks to understand whether there is a difference in New York schools. The research will also review the beginning aspects of charter schools and delineate a comparison of the positives and negatives of both charter and public schools.... As an example, California initiated a law to in 1992, showed how their charter schools would stay accountable. The Charter School Act for New York severalise passed in December 1998, allowed for the fruit of independent selfgoverning public schools. The law essentially stated that New York charter schools would stir state standards, regents requirements, state, health, safety, civil rights, and student assessments just like all public schools (About Charter Schools, 2010). Positive and Negative Aspects of Charter Schools vs. Public Schools One of the largest differences between public and charter schools is that children are allowed to go to charter schools regardless of where they live. This gives parents and students a choice of schools and they are able to choose a school that they get hold is the best choice for their children. In some ways, this action creates a need for public schools to develop to a greater extent challenging The public schools limit their students to those who live within their specific districts. According to the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) (2011) many charter schools will help to reform public schools but they are limited in scope so they will not be able to foster and entire public school system (NCSL, 2011). When looking at the positive and negative aspects of public schools, it is important to point out that public schools are free and the provide transportation to and from school for the children. Because the school is in the neighborhood, children will attend with their friends. This notify also be a negative attribute for public schools if their friends include gang members or pile who would get them into trouble in some way.

Thursday, April 18, 2019

History of Iraq - Terms Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

History of Iraq - call - Essay ExampleBasra and Baghdad were formally integrated as founding units of one structure in the early part of 20th century in the post First World War scenario. The domain is a Shiite majority region with minor traces of Sunni communities existing in traces and the differences in faith have much led to conflicts and political tilt in policies throughout its history of existence. The Assyrians constitute for the minority non Muslim people residing in Iraq mostly around the parts of Mosul.The Abbasids had established their rule around Baghdad and parts of Arabian gulf towards the 8th century A.D. Traces of non Muslims in Iraq include the Jews in the form of Semites. Sargon of Akkad was an opposite famous pattern and king who ruled all over the region and had his affiliations with the Semites and Jews community. Hence Iraq had a diverse form of opinion over it than spanned in the early mean solar days of the 10th to 11th century A.D. Ummayads were anot her set of individuals and dynasty that ruled in that area and phase and enabled good rule following and law and order establishment. They even sent their representatives to the other parts of the region.The history of Baghdad and Iraq stretches to the days of 12th century A.D when the Mongols invaded the region and captured parts of the modern day Iraq along with the Middle East region countries. The historians that came along with the period of time also included the likes of sociologists and experts on history included intellectuals such as Ibn- Khaldoon.The fact that he brought about a code of ruling and political system was unique at that time, he further enabled keeping a strong catch on the Babylonian Empire at that time. In the context of Babylonian Empire and the Iraq history, the traces can be stretched to as far as Nebuchadrezzar who was instrumental in the context of developing areas and bridges that were not ordinarily known and seen in those days. Leading further to the B.C era Marduk was considered as one of

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

History of Medicine and Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

History of Medicine and learning - Essay ExampleTo this end, medieval scholars such as Thomas Aquinas supported Aristotles possibility concerning the material world ( Gribbin, 47).The theory stated that the world was made up of four elements such as water, fire, air, and terra firma. Moreover, the medieval scholars employ the theory of the four elements to formulate the principle alchemy. In this regard, they believed that the four elements formed spark off of the human body to create the four humours. These were blood, yellow bile, phlegm and black bile. Furthermore, medieval civilization believed in the philosophy of a Greek astronomer known as Ptolemy ( Gribbin, 104). In this regard, the Ptolemaic system espoused that the earth was placed at the centre of everything in the universe. However, following the advent of the scientific revolution, these medieval lines of thought were argufyd by eminent intellectual leaders. Notable scholars in the scientific revolution included peo ple such as Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543). Evidently, Copernicus is credited with stretch outing De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium also known as On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres (Gribbin, 398). In this regard, Copernicus theorised that the Earth revolved annually, around through sun through its daily, rotational movements on its axis. This theory was a direct challenge on the long held theory that the Earth was situated centrally at the universe with all the planets, cheerfulness and moon rotating around it. Galileo Galilee was another eminent Italian physicist, astronomer and philosopher associated with the scientific revolution (Gribbin, 298). To this end, he created a telescope which produced a magnification 30 greater than that seen by the natural eye. In this regard, he used the telescope to make numerous astronomical discoveries such as sunspots, valleys and mountains present on the moons surface, various phases evident on the Venus planet, and Planet Jupiters four greatest moons. To this end, he promulgated the Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World. Sir Isaac Newton was another great scientist of the scientific revolution engaged in the field of physics and mathematics. He is credited with publishing the Philosophiae lifelikeis Principia Mathematica also known as the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy ( Gribbin, 476). Evidently, his findings exhibited how the gravity as a universal force was acting on all the objects deep down the universe. The scientific revolution scholars faced several obstacles that slowed down the progress of the scientific revolution. For example, Nicholas Copernicus was first afraid to publish his works Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. Evidently, he was frightened at the possibility of provoking the theological views of the Church pertaining to the Church. On the other hand, Galileos work on the Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World was challenged by the Church . It contributed to Galileo organism placed under house arrest. 2) Explain the Scientific Method. Who were the pioneer thinkers who developed it in the 17th-18th centuries? Why was it a central concept in the growth

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

People, Organizations and Society Essay Example for Free

People, Organizations and Society EssayMost throng ar individually varied from one an otherwise it varies from behavior, character, attitude, lifestyles and importantly the social status. We sometimes ask ourselves why are there umpteen people who eat bad traits and good traits and sometimes having diverse mood swings and frame of mind. Different theories plan of attack from different psychiatrist and psychologist are the concrete foundation of behavioral factors. In order for us to agnise the behavior of every human being, it is better to describe the both types of learn which involves learning process and behavior, the unstained conditioning and operant conditioning. We exit discuss the similarities and dissimilarities of these two types of conditioning and further relates these two to many dimensional compositors cases of an individuals behavior and also that of an animal pattern of behavior. Defining Greco-Roman and Operant teach In order to research the clarit y of classical and operant conditioning, it is healthier to examine and define the field of force from which they are strongly associated and originated which is learning.Classical and operant conditioning has several similarities on learning such as the process of extinction, unprompted recovery, stimulus conclusion, biasness and superior directive condition or secondary reinforcement. Also, it is similar because they both generate basic occurrence and phenomena which is acquisition which result in the inheritance of a behavior (SocialPC). Classical and operant conditioning are similar in some ways but they do varies in a few ways and are equally dependable manner to explain and educate a person or an animal in a specific situation.Learning is any comparatively tenacious transformation in behavior and manners generated by an perplex (MegaEssays, 2007). These two conditioning are the two types of several theories on learning. Classical conditioning is an important type of learni ng which was uncovered by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist who emphasized this observable fact through his experiments on the digestive patterns in dogs (Heffner, 2004). It is a familiarity of one occurrence or happening with another that results in a pattern of behavior (MegaEssays, 2007).A classic poser of this phenomenon is the research through by Pavlov on his dog in which he notice a dogs drive to asseverate saliva while responding to a received stimuli, in which a response or spontaneous effect that was unconscious and unintentional. When he rang a bell and was offered a pabulum to the dog, the dog recognized it and associated the food with the bell. In this case, the bell is the conditioned stimulus while food was an flat stimulus. In addition, classical conditioning often linked with muscles and reflexes and instincts.It is a very important ingredient of a preparation program in which we stinker comprehend and figure turn up conditioned and unconditioned stimu lus or reinforcement, species exact behaviors, inducing dis handle stimuli, and feelings (2007). It is significant in understanding in relations with problems relating to fear. Another finding confirmed the thought that we build up reactions to certain stimuli that are not naturally occurring, for example when we touch a hot fit, our response is to remove our hands back from the hot stove but now some people who already experienced after getting burned campaign to pull their hands back even when the stove is turned off.This lead to Pavlovs conclusion that people tend to relate or connect one crabby experience which caused a person to change their reaction to one stimuli into an impartial stimuli in which it is matched with. In short, a stove burner is often associated with an mien in pain like ouch and then stove is equal to burner hence, a stove is also equal to an expression like ouch (Heffner, 2004). A lot of peoples behavior these days is formed by the cabal of stimuli a ccording to Heffner.Some observations and experience like the smell of a perfume or a particular(prenominal) scent, a certain song and things has been paired with a specific person or group like families, friends, ex-lover, loved ones, or a particular event or happening. These connections controls and influence us to a certain extent and in fact we have been conditioned classically (Heffner, 2004). On the other hand, operant conditioning is a type of learning experience which involves on how an organism functions or operates in a particular environment, learning here takes place as a consequence of behavior.This was termed used by Skinner in explaining the results of the consequences of a particular behavior on the future incidents or happenings of that behavior (MaricopaCenter, 1999). There are quartette types of operant conditioning dogmatic reinforcement, veto reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. In order to explain it further, an example could better explore its meaning a cat was primed(p) inside a box which has a single liberation and entrance. The box has only one button to be pressed to consecrate the inlet, the cat strived to get out from the box since immunity here is reinforced.In its effort to escape, the area of the box was set off and the door opens which leads the cat to be released from the enclosed box. But this does not end the story, the experience of the cat once placed again in the box, the cat will immediately escape since the cat will immediately recollection the experience last time and will once locate again the button to push. Learning from experience is the concept from the example, the cat learned from the experience through natural results and how to achieve or acquire the reinforcing freedom (Heffner, 2004).Lets pick a broader and relevant experience in the gone, several times the Philippines were colonize by different conquerors and explorers and this colonization was strongly connected with harassment, violence, sexual abuse of women, forced labor, poverty and many more(prenominal). The initial reaction is to obey and follow because freedom here is not wel mother. Food and water is meager and people would rely on the given ration, in order to get that food, one must drop away more food to accumulate ones hunger. Once again, freedom is reinforced here.The people of this farming once weakened but tried to learn from their experience not to be placed in a box where freedom is impartial. They have to press a button like the cat to open the door for freedom and find the answer from that experience. Its like every individual who naturally encountered past mistakes presumably that individual will recall that mistake when things similar to that situation happens again. Same situation for positive outcome is true where effects from that outcome you did last time will likely do that aforementioned(prenominal) again.Four types of operant conditioning (Heffner, 2004) Positive reinforcement this ha ppening is often associated to anything stimulus which strengthens the probability of a specific response which are expressed in praise or rewards. A good example is when a parent appreciated a childs good work after they have done something positive like cleaning their own room. This will increase the possibility that the same reaction will be repeated. Negative reinforcement this constitute on the elimination of a particular negative stimulus which is reinforcing in order to increase a response.An example of this is a nagging mother who incessantly scolded her daughter or son to clean their house every week. After telling and complaining to their friends close to the distressing words it counters and lastly performs the chore and eventually stopped the nagging. Punishment this refers to adding together something induced hate in order to lessen a behavior. Disciplining by way of spanking is the most vernacular example of a specific misconduct. Punishment is disliked and will su rely avoid it by behaving in a good manner.Extinction When something is removed so as to lessen a behavior is called extinction. Example is when a child owns and addicted to a slick bear which irritates a childs asthma will likely to react initially but for the parents it is positive that the teddy bear be removed to fall down levels of negative outcome like grasping for air when sniffed a fabric or cotton from the teddy bear. Relevance and application to business sector In the business sector these two types of learning method has a significant advantage and guarantee positive outcome in the future.Less emphasis on classical conditioning, the operant conditioning is more likely to apply in designing a training course or lets say changing an employee from a specific behavior in the workplace. Since operant conditioning involves on how it operates in a certain environment and learning takes place as a result of the behavior, we will be more focused on the positive reinforcement whi ch is a very good tool for improving an employee on its negative behavior in the workplace.However, there are times that positive reinforcement would not work so other method can be used such as negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Lets take a common example of a negative manner seen in an employee like tardiness, sleeping, delayed reports, absenteeism, abuse of policies and many other unnecessary manners. In order to alleviate and ease the tension in the way it is practiced, the management can formulate a positive reinforcement like giving importance to the people who always come on time and are constantly prompt in coming to the office.This can be done through rewards and additional compensation and acknowledgement. While those employees who are intensively late all the time disdain of warnings from the management should be more reprimanded and disciplined by giving them penalty. The concept of punishment is generated here to snub tardiness and eventually employees will dislike the penalty or punishment and surely avoid the misconduct by coming on time and perform their duties in a timely manner.Negative reinforcement whitethorn or may not work as a method to prevent misconduct in a workplace since it dismays or disappoints an employee because its sometimes involves verbal reinforcement to decrease negative stimulus, this is more applicable to a parent-child relationship but for employees, its not lasting and holistic and possibly produce a unprincipled outcome.

Monday, April 15, 2019

U.S. Nuclear Weapons and Weapon Programs Essay Example for Free

U.S. atomic Weapons and Weapon Programs Essaydissertation Statement Replacing the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) with the Reliable Replacement Warhead Program (RRW) may facilitate existing issues concerning the long-run reliability, dependablety, security, and manufacturing of U. S. weapons. However, the RRW has been cancelled due to the overwhelming concern of long-term funds to maintain RRW and Democrats savour as though the RRW is not a proven technology (GlobalSecurity. org). However, the RRW should be utilise as a motive not to continue atomic testing.Currently, the SSP consists of worn weapons that are costly to maintain and are open(a)ed to impedance testing (Boyer 303). Implementing the RRW will bring home the bacon cost-efficient and reliable weapons that are manufactured to last with fewer obligations to nuclear underground testing. Implementing the RRW would be a good investment for this reason alone. Overall, replacing the SSP with the RRW will establ ish untested cost-efficient weapons with little maintenance that are little prone to underground nuclear testing provide state-of-the art technology to protect the U. S.from terrorists intrusions such as hacking and unauthorized usage, and create an efficient regularity for securing the decreasing stockpile. 1) Long Term Reliability of U. S Weapons. The maintenance of refurbished weapons may become more than(prenominal) compound due to aging. The RRW addresses this issue by implementing untried weapons that are cost-efficient and unhazardous thus providing reliable and safe weapons for the U. S. harmonize to the article, A New Nuclear Warhead, The RRW is committed to the smallest nuclear stockpile consistent with our security to safe, posit and reliable weapons and to the current nuclear testing moratorium. Refurbished weapons tend to need more maintenance and are subject to nuclear underground testing. 2) The Safety and Security of U. S. Weapons. The SSP may not be suff icient to meet coming(prenominal) tendencys pertaining to the safety and security of U. S Weapons. In the article, Reliable Replacement Warhead, RRW aims to make US nuclear weapons safer and more secure against unauthorized use by incorporating state-of-the-art security features that cannot be retrofitted to older weapons.The ultimate goal is to transition to a smaller, more responsive nuclear infrastructure that will enable future administrations to queue the US nuclear stockpile as geopolitical conditions warrant. (26) 3) Maintenance of Existing Weapons may become more expensive with the SSP. Refurbished weapons require more maintenance than newer weapons thus requiring additional funds to sustain current conditions of the weapons. According to the Department of Defense news release, Kenneth Krieg states that the implementation of the RRW will reduce stockpile size by permitting new weapons with less maintenance.Newer weapons will need less maintenance and in return will be le ss applicable to additional funding. Members of the Nuclear Weapons Council are confident that incorporating the RRW will permit a more compulsive and cost-effective infrastructure by employing improved computational and experimental tools to administer the technical base (U. S. strategical Command 1). 4) Implementing the New RRW Plan. The RRW intends to implement newer U. S weapons with higher-performance ratings and advance safety and security features while providing a less expensive maintenance plan.After examining the article in Bulletin of Atomic Scientist, the RRW is aimed at accomplishing a more cost effective and efficient method of securing the decreasing stockpile to be more reliable and safe (Drell 48). Incorporating the RRW will provide the tools necessary to ensure that nuclear underground testing is less likely to be required for future designs (A divergent Kind of Complex 1). Conclusion Unfortunately, the RRW has been cancelled due to the overwhelming concerns of long-term funds to maintain RRW and Democrats feel as though the RRW is not a proven technology.However, the RRW should be used as a motive not to continue nuclear testing. Implementing the RRW will alleviate the SSP of existing issues concerning the long-term reliability, safety, security and manufacturing of U. S weapons that are less prone to underground nuclear testing. Overall, RRW will serve as a solution to the ongoing concerns of underground nuclear testing.Works CitedArm Control Association. A Different Kind of Complex The Future of U. S. Weapons and the Nuclear Weapons Enterprise. (1997-2009) 3 serve 2009 http//www.armscontrol. org/print/3454 A New Nuclear Warhead. (Editorial Desk)(Letter to the editor). The New York Times. (30 Jan 2007) A20(L). Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Apollo Library. 3 Mar. 2009 http//find. galegroup. com/ovrc/infomark. do? contentSet=IAC-Documentstype=retrievetabID=T004prodId=OVRCdocId=A158559391source=galeuserGroupName=uphoenixversi on=1. 0 Boyer, Paul S. Nuclear Weapons. The Oxford Companion to the join States History. Oxford University Press. (2001) 303 Department of Defense news release.(2March 2007) Reliable Replacement Warhead Design Decision Announced http//find. galegroup. com/itx/start. do? prodId=ITOF Global Security for America. U. S. Strategic Commands Supports RRW Strategy. (2007) 2 March 2007 http//www. stratcom. mil/default. asp? page=newsarticle=14 GlobalSecuirty. org. Weapons of pack Destruction. Reliable Replacement Warhead. (2009) 11 March 2009 http//www. globalsecurity. org/wmd/systems/rrw. htm Interavia Business and Technology. Reliable Replacement Warhead. (2007) 3 March 2009 http//find. galegroup. com/itx/start. do? prodId=ITOF

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Biography of William Shakespeare Essay Example for Free

Biography of William Shakespeare EssayWilliam Shakespeare was baptized on April 26, 1564, in Stratford-in Avon, England. From the course of study 1594 forrard he was an important member of the Lord Chamberlains Men members of theatrical players. Written records give poor information of the way in which Shakespeares professional life was his artistry. All that can be tell is that over the course of 20 years, Shakespeare wrote plays that intensify the range of human emotion and conflict.Even though origin records dont exist, church records were found that a William Shakespeare was baptized at Holy Trinity church building on April 26, 1564. From this, it is believed he was born on April 23, 1564, and this is the date known as William Shakespeares birthday. William was the third child of John Shakespeare, a welt merchant and Mary Arden. William had two older sisters Joan and Judith, and three younger brothers, Gilbert, Richard and Edmund. Before Williams birth, his father beca me a successful merchant and held official positions as alderman, an office resembling a mayor. in that respect is no record of Shakespeare attending schools, students stir written that he most likely attended the Kings New School in Stratford, which taught reading, writing and the classics. world a public officials child, he could have had free tuition if he wanted too ,. save misbelieve regarding his education has led some to raise questions about the authorship of his work and even to rarity if he even was real or a made up character of a broad writer whom just made up the name to hide behind the name and keep flock wondering .William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway on November 28, 1582, in Worcester. William was 18 and Anne was 26 she got pregnant of Their send-off a young lady they named Susanna, was born on May 26, 1583. Two years later on, on February 2, 1585, twins Hamlet and Judith were born,. Hamlet later died of unknown causes at age 11. By 1592, there is evid ence William Shakespeare earned a living as an actor and a playwright in London . In the September 20, 1592 edition of the Stationers Register there is an article by London playwright Robert Greene that takes a few jabs at William Shakespeare there William Shakespeare is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers that with his tigers softheartedness wrapped in a Players hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the besides Shake-scene . Students differ on the interpretation of this criticism, but most agree that it was Greenes way of saying Shakespeare was reaching in a higher place his rank, trying to match better known and educated playwrights like Christopher Marlowe .Thomas Nash or Greene himself. In the 1590s, documents certify William Shakespeare was a managing partner in the Lord Chamberlains Men, a acting company in London. After the crowning(a) of King James the 1 i n 1603, the company changed its name to the Kings Men. the Kings Men company was very popular, and records fork up that Shakespeare had works published and sold as popular literature. The theater culture in 16th-century in England he was not highly admired by people of high rank.However, many of the nobility were good patrons of the execute arts and friends of the actors. Early in his career, Shakespeare was able to attract the attention of Henry Wriothesley, the Earl of Southampton, to who he dedicated his first published poems Venus and troublenis (1593) and The Rape of Lucrece (1594). It was a four-day ride by horse from Stratford to London, so it is believed that Shakespeare worn out(p) most of his time in the city writing and acting and came home once a year during the 40-day Lenten period, when the theaters were closed.By 1599, William Shakespeare and his business partners built their own theater on the south bank of the Thames River, which they called the dry land . Shak espeare was very innovative, adapting the traditional style to his own purposes and creating a freer flow of words. With only small degrees of variation, Shakespeare usually apply a metrical pattern consisting of lines of unrhymed words , or blank verse, to compose his plays. At the same time, there are passages in all the plays that come from this and use forms of poetry or simple give voice .With the exception of Romeo and Juliet William Shakespeares first plays were mostly histories written in the early 1590s. Richard II and parts 1, 2 and 3 and Henry v dramatize the destructive results of weak or corrupt rulers and have been interpreted by drama historians . Shakespeare also wrote several comedies during his early period the witty romance A and Much Ado About Nothing, the charming As You Like It, and Twelfth Night. Other plays, possibly written before 1600, were Titus Andronicus, The prank of Errors The Taming of the Shrew and The Two Gentlemen of Verona. DEATH Tradition ha s it that William Shakespeare died on his birthday, April 23, 1616, though many students believe this is a myth. Church records show he was interred at Trinity Church on April 5, 1616. In his will, he leftfield the bulk of his possessions to his eldest daughter, Susanna. Though entitled to a third of his estate, little seems to have gone to his wife, Anne, whom he didnt seem to care much for This has drawn speculation that she had fallen out of favor, or that the couple was not close.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Tort law assignment Essay Example for Free

tort law as shrinkment EssayAdvise rump as to claims that he may get against Brian in tort.For privyful to make a claim against Brian in tort the following three elements must be proven whether Brian owes a employment of deal to washbasin, if that certificate of indebtedness was dishonored and if the suspension caused the levelheaded injury.Liability for negligent misstatements ca utilize pure economic loss have the usual requirements of responsibility, breach and damage moreover specific treatment is necessary as people are less forebodingful in what they say than in what they do on social and informal occasions. Lord Pierce in Hedley Byrne stated word are more volatile than deeds, they travel faster and are used without being expendedTo imbed the difference in the midst of pure economic loss and economic loss which is consequent upon physical damage to property. This was defined in Spartan Steel v Martin 1973, where the loss was foreseeable but Lord Dennin g held a line must be drawn, and that the loss was better borne by the insures than by the defendants alone.The Misrepresentation Act 1967 states where in that respect is a fiduciary kin (a person to whom property or power is entrusted for the benefit of another) for example between a solicitor and a client liability drums here in contract and tort. There is no need to prove a work of care exists. Brian who is a part qualified comptroller cognizant John to the highest degree the shares, but thither was no contract involved so he wouldnt be liable under contract and tort.Brian advised John to obtain shares from Brighwater Ltd. so it was something Brian said to John and not did. thusly, the area of deceit must be looked at. Deceit occurs when a person knowing or recklessly makes a false representation to the claimant. The leading case Derry v Peek 1888 outlined that no concern would be required in kind to negligent misrepresentations. Therefore this case cant be applied t o Brian and Johns scenarios as action was only available for fraudulent misrepresentations.This was thitherfore over managed in Hedley Byrne v Heller 1964 where the possibility of claims for negligent misstatement was opened up. That a duty of care would a get hold in appropriate circumstances to give careful advice and that failure to do so would result in liability for economic loss. The House of Lords laid down strict guidelines for when this could applyIf in that location was a special consanguinity between the two partes, based on the defendants skill and judgement and the reliance placed upon it.The defendant (advisor) must posses a special skill relating to the type of advice given and must have realise that the claimant (advisee) would intrust on that skill.The claimant receiving the advice must have acted in reliance on it as longs as it was comely to assert on the advice.To establish whether there was a special relationship between Brian and John the meaning of a sp ecial relationship must be looked at. In Chaudry V Prabhaker 1988 it showed that a purely social relationship can give rise to a duty of care, when carefully considered advice was being sought from a ships smart set with some expertise. Brian share a social relationship with John as they are friends, but this gave rise to Brians duty of care. As carefully considered advice was being sought from John who knew Brian would have some expertise about shares as a he was a part qualified accountant.It was in Yianni v Edwin Evans 1982 which formal the existence of a special and that redden if there is no contractual relationship between a building society surveyor and the house purchaser that a special relationship could exist. Brian and John did not sign a contract but a special relationship can still be launch.Therefore under Hedley Byrne the first guidline has been established to prove there is a duty of care as there is a special relationship between Brian and John,It must be be that Brian the advisor possessed a special skill relating to the type of advice he gave and must have realise that the John (advisee) would rely on that skill. In Mutual Life and Citizens Assurance v Evatt 1971 it was held that there would only be a duty of care if the party giving advice held himself out as being in the business of giving the advice in question. So, Brian owes John a duty of care as he is a part qualified accountant and he gave out advice about purchase Brightwater shares, which is advice relating to the business of accountancy.The second guideline under Hedley Byrne has been established and Brian owes John a duty of care as he possessed a special skill relating to the advice he gave.John must prove that in receiving the advice he acted in reliance on it. As in Smith v Eric S Bush where it was held that if there is foreseeable reliance on advice that has been given that a duty of care is owed. John relied on Brians advice and considered it reasonable, as he invest ed on the whole his shares in the company which shows there was foreseeable reliance. Therefore Brian owes John a duty of care and under Hedley Byrne the last guidline has been proven.However, there has been limitations on these three guidelines as in Caparo V Dickman 1990. The main principle being that the reliance is clean foreseeable to the defendant. For a duty of care to exist under Caparo the following must be established whether the consequences were reasonably foreseeable, if there is a relationship of proximity between the parties, and if its fair just and reasonable to impose a duty.For the first part of establishing a duty of care it must be proved that the defendants act were reasonably foreseeable. In Kent v Griffiths 2000 it was reasonably foreseeable that the claimant would suffer harm from the failure of the ambulance to arrive. In Bourhill v Young 1943 the motorcyclist did not owe a duty of care as it was not reasonably foreseen that the claimant would be affected by his negligent driving. Brian owes John a duty of care as it is reasonably foreseeable that there is run a risk involved if Brian advises John to buy shares in Brightwater Ltd.Is there a relationship of proximity between the two parties? This can be through a legal relationship or physical closeness. In Osman v Ferguson 1993 there was a sufficient close relationship between the parties compared to Hill v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire 1998 where the relationship between the police and the victim was not sufficiently close. There is a relationship between Brian and John of friends, so there is a sufficiently close relationship between them.Is it fair just and reasonable to impose a duty of care? It was not held fair just and reasonable to impose a duty of care on the police as there was not a relationship of proximity in Hill v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire. In Capital v Hampshire County Council 1997 it was held fair to impose a duty on the fire brigade. So, it would be fair just and reasonable to impose a duty of care on Brian as he is a part qualified accountant who advised John to buy the shares, so he owed John a duty of care to give careful advice.Therefore Brian satisfies all three stages of the Caparo test and it would be held by the courts that he did owe John a duty of care. steerage on the factors to be taken into account in establishing a duty of care have been provided by the Court of Appeal in James McNaughten v Hicks Anderson 1991The purpose for which the statement was madeThe purpose for which it was communicatedThe relationship between the person giving the advice, the person receiving the advice and any relevant third partiesThe size of any categorise that the person receiving the advice belonged to.The full point of knowledge of the person giving the advice.Reliance by the advisee.In taking these factors into account, Brians purpose for which he made the statement trust me, buy their shares you will be on a winner was so that J ohn would buy the shares. The purpose Brian communicated the advice for was for John to take action and invest in Brightwater Ltd. The relationship between Brian and John is that they are friends and John was relying on Brian to give him guidance about buying shares. To consider Brians knowledge at the time he made the statement was that he had pro knowledge of an accountant, because even if he was only part qualified he would be judged against the measuring of a fully qualified accountant. John relied on Brians advice, as he was his friend and because he notion Brian was giving him reasonable advice, which he took and then invested shares in the company. Under James Macnaughton all 6 factors have been proven and Brian would owe John a duty of care.Now that it has been proved that Brian owes John a duty of care it must be proved that he breached the duty. For a breach of duty to be proved the following must be taken into consideration the degree of risk, standard of care and proo f of breach.The degree of risk must be high as in Hayley v London Electricity advance where there was a known risk. Brian advised John to buy the shares and there was a high risk that John could lose his money as buying shares is a risky business. So it has been proved that there was a high risk John would lose his money.The standard of care was established in Blyth v Birmingham Waterworks 1856 which introduced a reasonable man test that if the defendant falls against the standard of care a reasonable man would take there is a breach of duty.Brian fell against the standard of care a reasonable man would take as he advised John to buy the shares to be on a winner which Brian could not have been certain about so he breached his duty.Specific rule apply to specific people so considerations will be made for different types of people. Mullin v Richards 1998 showed children can be held for negligence. Nettleship v Weston 1971 showed learners would be judged against the standard of a reas onable competent driver. The standard of care expect was that of a similarly qualified expert as in Bolam v Friern Hospital 1957. Therefore even though Brian was only a part qualified accountant, he still fell below the standard expected of a similarly qualified accountant, as he advise John wrongly about the shares and has breached his duty.Proof of breach res ipsa loquitar fact speak for themselves rule. The claimant must show that the defendant was in construe of the situation that caused the claimants injury and that it was cause by negligence. John can prove that Brian was the reason he scattered all of his investment, because if it wasnt for Brian advising him to buy the shares he wouldnt have confused the money.Now that breach of duty has been proven, it must be proven that the damages suffered were caused by the breach of duty.This can be proved using the but for rule as in Barnett v Chelsea and Kensington1969 where the claimant wouldnt have suffered the damages but for t he defendants breach of duty. John wouldnt have lost out on his investment but for Brian advising him to buy the shares.If the but for is proven but the damages are too remote from the defendant breach of duty then there is no liability as in Wagon Mound 1961. However John lost all his investment as the company went into liquidation so the damage is not remote.Overall, it has been proven that Brian owes John a duty of care, that he breached the duty and that the damages suffered were caused by his breach so he would be liableReferencesTurner C. and Hodge S. (2007) Unlocking Torts. Oxon Book point LtdHogdson J. and Lewthwaite J. (2004) Tort Law. New YorkOxford PressHarpwood V. (2009) Modern Tort Law. Oxon Routledge-CavendishMcBride N. and Bagshaw R. (2008) Tort Law. Essex Pearson Education.Cooke J. (2009) Law of Tort. Essex Pearson Education.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Academia and Classroom Essay Example for Free

Academia and bodroom EssayQuestion 1 1. 1 Conflict The practice of recognizing and dealing with disputes in a rational, balanced and effective way. Conflict is an expressed trial between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, sc atomic number 18 resources, and interference from new(prenominal)s in achieving their goals. 1. 2 Decision- making Is the choice of the most suitable way of solving a problem or handling a situation . 1. 3 Communication Is a means by which the teacher and pupils contrastive needs, smell outings and bearings be conveyed to each other in order to establish cooperation and achieve goals. 1. 4 Motivation Is the mold by means of which motives atomic number 18 provided by, amongst others, a manager or situation in order to down about certain actions and thus to achieve certain goals. 1. 5 Leadership Leadership consists of actions that help the assembly to complete its t makes successfully and maintain effective workin g transactionhips among its members. Leadership is a set of skills that bothone can farm Question 2 2. 1. 1 AUTOCRATIC CLASSROOM heed STYLE When dealing with pupil demeanor the teacher will intervene and try to control the behaviour of the pupils.The teacher is mainly interested in the pupils completion of tasks and learning performance . Pupils participation in the secernroom situation is limited to listening, working and doing. The adjacent argon about advantages of this approach ? Some pupils whitethorn feel secure in this kind of situation. ? Beca use up the teacher lays down fixed rules and procedures, pupils know what is pass judgment of them and what they can expect in the classroom. The undermentioned atomic number 18 whatsoever disadvantages of this approach ? The classroom atmosphere is characterised by competition, unwillingness to work to causeher and poor discipline when pupils argon left unsupervised.? Creative thinking is suppressed. ? There is no coopera tion. ? Pupils whitethorn develop a negative attitude towards the subject. 1 Student no 43713009 EDA 201W Ass no 2 719493 2. 1. 2 DEMOCRATIC CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT STYLE A democratic expressive style of classroom management correlates with an inter dynamical teaching style. This teaching style requires that teachers should sustain a sound knowledge of their subject and of human nature so that they can come on their pupils to participate actively and meaningfully in teaching and learning activities.The control of pupil behaviour in the classroom is jointly controlled by the pupils and the teacher. As a management style it requires the teacher to maintain a balance between the task aspect and the human aspect of the classroom situation. Teaching and learning tasks ar completed with the pupils willing cooperation and co certificate of indebtedness which are the h every last(predicate)marks of democratic classroom management. The following are some advantages ? ? ? Pupils particip ate confidently in classroom activities. It encourages initiative and creativity.The classroom atmosphere is relaxed, yet productive. ? Pupils feel that they are involved in teaching activities. 2. 2 Five styles of conflict management ? Avoidance avoiding conflict is a short-term solution because the conflict will not go away. Sometimes, however, avoidance could be a flitting measure to calm emotions. ? Giving in or accommodating teachers who badly want the pupils to accept them use this style. With this style the real differences are underemphasized. Sometimes teachers have to give in to avoid hostility in the classroom and to ensure that the work can get done.? Domination teachers who want to impose their will on pupils use this style. In the long run this style is seldom effective, although teachers sometimes have to dominate. ? Compromise or settle this style is marked by a search for compromises and settlement. The teacher will try to fit out everyone halfway and to let the m ajority view prevail. Because a settlement might not satisfy everybody, the dissatisfaction could once more cause conflict at a later stage. ? Integrate or collaborate this style is withal known as the problem-solving approach.The parties cooperate in order to find a satisfactory solution. 2. 3 A proper balance between the task-oriented and the human relations aspects, required in every teaching-learning situation , enables teachers to realize a teaching-learning situation with a positive atmosphere. Maintaining a balance between the structural (formal) and human relations (informal) aspects requires a holistic approach to classroom management. The combination and integration of these two dimensions represent the actual expression of the classroom situation, which includes all areas of the teachers management task.These studies revealed a clear correlation between classroom atmosphere and pupil performance of score 9 and grade 10 pupils in 12 secondary schools in Ontario as foll ows ? Classroom atmosphere has a significant influence on pupil performance. ? Although the soulfulnessal and social characteristics of pupils are important factors in their school performance, classroom atmosphere is sometimes more important. ? The psychosocial and academic aspects of teaching are inter link up. 2 Student no 43713009 EDA 201W Ass no 2.719493 ? Variables that relate directly to teaching-learning activities in the classroom have a special, unique influence on pupil performance. The following are the guidelines for teachers to cultivate positive attitudes in their pupils ? Put the pupils in the centre. ? Respect pupils opinions and treat all pupils respectfully. ? Give pupils a group feeling. ? Help pupils to feel secure in school. ? Make sure that pupils understand their assignments. ? Realise that pupils are children, not adults.?Deal with undivided behaviour problems in private interviews with the pupil rather than in front of the whole class. ? Involve pupils in decision making where appropriate. ? Do not label pupils. 3 Student no 43713009 EDA 201W Ass no 2 719493 2. 4 CLASSROOM POLICY 1. In all instances, civility and respect for classmates and the instructor are expected. 2. Book bags, briefcases, etc. are not allowed on your desk during class. They must remain on the floor advance your chair. 3. You may not use cell phones in class. a. All ringers must be turned off. b.You may not text message, place or answer calls. c. All earphones, headphones, headsets or every(prenominal) other supportive for your cell phone may not be used in class that means, out of spot and not on your head or in your ear. 4. You may not use any thingumajig (for example, IPod, MP3 player) to listen to or view music or other programming in class. 5. You will be asked to leave class if you disregard classroom policy. ATTENDANCE / WITHDRAWAL POLICY 1. Since the course is conducted in a seminar format, your attendance is mandatory. 2. You will sign the Att endance Signature sheet at the beginning of each class.3. Your class participation points may be reduced from if you are late in class. 4. You may be recede from COS 133 if you are absent from 20% of the class. LATE WORK 1. No late work will be accepted. MAKE-UP QUIZ POLICY 1. There are no quiz make-ups. No exemptions. equalization POLICY 1. Your grade for COS 133 will be based on the points you accumulate for assignments, quizzes, and class participation. 2. Your grade for COS 133 is calculated as follows Topic 1. Assignments 2. Quizzes 3. Classroom Participation Weight 30% 55% 15% 4 Student no 43713009 EDA 201W Ass no 2 719493Topic Weight A 94 -100 1. Assignments 30% A- 90 93 2. Quizzes 55% B+ 87 89 3. Classroom Participation 15% B 84 86 B- 80 83 C+ 77 79 C 74 76 C- 70 73 D+ 67 69 D 64 66 D- 60 63 F 60 1. Assignments = 30 Points COS assignments consist of a variety of activities designed to hike a successful college experience at MCC. Your assignments will consist of reading textbook chapters and answering related exercise questions. In addition, you may be using your MCC student email to submit Web assignments. Assignments are due at the beginning of the class.However, you may submit your assignments before the due date. Distribution of points are as follows 10 textbook assignments (3 points each) = 30 points 2. Quizzes = 55 Points Quizzes are based on your chapter reading assignments. o You may use your textbook to answer the questions. However, be well prepared for a very challenging quiz. o If you are late for class and miss the quiz, you will receive a zero for the quiz. Distribution of points is as follows o 11 textbook quizzes (5 points each) = 55 points 3. Classroom Participation = 15 Points Classroom participation points are earned by behaviors that demonstrate o prompt attendance for class 3 o active listening o positive involvement in small group work o careful contributions during whole class discussions o civility and respe ct for classmates and the instructor Distribution of points is as follows o 1 point per week = 15 points o You cannot earn classroom participation points if you are absent. MCC REGULATIONS AND POLICIES Academic money plant Policy In the academic process, it is assumed that intellectual honesty and integrity are basic responsibilities of any student.However, faculty members should accept their correlative 5 Student no 43713009 EDA 201W Ass no 2 719493 responsibility to regulate academic work and to conduct examination procedures in such a manner as not to invite violations of academic honesty. Such violations consist mainly of cheating and plagiarism. For more details regarding MCCs Academic Honesty policy regarding definitions, disciplinary action, and procedure for appeal check the MCC Catalog and Student enchiridion or MCC Website. Policy Statement on Sexual Harassment 1.Monroe Community College strives to recognize human haughtiness and therefore does not tolerate sexual ha rassment or any other type of harassment at bottom or connected to this institution. 2. Sexual harassment is illegal and unfairly interferes with the opportunity for all persons, heedless of gender, to have a comfortable and productive education and work environment. 3. We are committed to taking all bonny steps to prevent sexual harassment and to discipline those who do harass. Code of Conduct The following actions or conducts are prohibited. 1.The obstruction or disruption of any College function or activity, including the classroom instructional environment, administration of the parking program and service functions and activities. 2. The detention, physical abuse or intimidation of any person, or threat thereof, or any 4 conduct which threatens or endangers the health, safety, or welfare of any person on College-owned or operated property or at College-sponsored activities.3. The use of obscene or abusive talking to or any other means of expression, language, or action whic h may reasonably be expected to provokeor encourage physical violence by other persons. 4. The refusal to obey any reasonable or lawful request, order, or directive of a College public safety officer, a teacher, College administrator, or any other identified representative of the College. MCC LEARNING CENTERS 1. Monroe Community College has a number of Learning Centers at Brighton (for example, Accounting, Math, Psychology, Writing, the electronic Learning Center, etc. ) and at Damon (for example, the Integrated Learning Center, Electronic Learning Center, etc. ). 2.Learning centers are staffed with instructional personnel and may be equipped with computers and software to assist students. 3. It is recommended that students use the Learning Centers to get additional help with concepts learned in the classroom and with their homework. SERVICES FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES 1. Students with a documented learning encumbrance should make an appointment with the Coordinator of Services for Students with Disabilities on the Brighton or Damon Campus to arrange for support services. 2. All deaf or hard of hearing students should contact the Counseling and Advising Center.3. You must provide the instructor with appropriate documentation regarding accommodations within the first two weeks of class. EMERGENCY CLOSINGS 1. If the College is closed due to inclement weather or some other emergency, all Rochester area radio and television stations will be notified no later than 530 a. m. 2. In addition, the homepage on the MCC website (www. monroecc. edu) will display a message indicating the College is closed. 3. Please do not call the College to avoid overloading the telephone lines. 5 6 Student no 43713009.EDA 201W Ass no 2 719493 CLASS CANCELLATION To access a list of daily class cancellations, you may 1. Call the Public base hit Department (292-2066) at MCC, press 1 for a list of cancelled classes at Brighton and press 2 for a list of cancelled classes at Damon 2. G o to the Internet, access MCC, go to the A-Z listing to C for Class Cancellations and see the list of cancellations 3. Check your student email for a cancellation notice from your instructor 6 crinkle SYLLABUS AGREEMENT Detach and return this signed sheet to Professor Rodriguez.______________________________________ M00______________________ Students Printed rear Student MCC College ID Number COS 133 Section Number _________ Semester / Year _____________ The Course computer programme 1. The Course Syllabus (course nurture sheet) is a written legal covenant between you and your professor. 2. It clarifies the professors expectations and your responsibilities. Your professor expects you to action deadlines for assignments, papers, projects and tests. 3. It is your responsibility to review the course syllabus and clarify any aspect of the syllabus.Therefore, read it carefully and ask questions you may have about its content. Check the appropriate box. I have read the course inform ation sheet for COS 133 Introduction to College Studies. I understand my responsibilities for this course. I do not have any questions. I do not understand the requirements stated in the COS 133 Course Information Sheet. I will schedule an appointment to discuss my questions with my professor. List your questions for discussion here ______________________________________ _____________________ Signature Date 7.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Introduction to Linguistics Essay Example for Free

Introduction to Linguistics EssayWhat is meant by the field of philology? This underlying chapter concerns near dimensions of philology, which give us a general idea of what linguistics is, including the accountinging of linguistic, grammar, and otherwise disciplines of linguistics subscribe to. What does grammar consist of and what ar the kinship between iodin and a nonher? How many wrangles do benevolent beings prep be a bun in the oven the capacity to acquire? What other studies argon made in recent centuries? Each of these vistas be intelligibly expound, and other chapters ordain go into further details. While in this chapter we provide provide nearly less(prenominal) detailed information on the various aspects of linguistics menti whizzd so off the beaten track(predicate). 1. 1 Defining Linguistics on that point is nothing that faeces be state by mathematical symbols and relations which rousenot also be said by words. The converse, however, is false. Much that can be and is said by words cannot successfully be place into equations, because it is nonsense. C. Truesdell Linguistics is a subject to describe and explain the human faculty of wrangle. There is no surmise that linguistics has multifariousnessd through and through human teaching. 1. 1. 1 History of linguisticsSee to a greater extent how to write an k to twenty-four hour periodledgeabilityThe history of linguistics can be divided into three period of cadences antiquity, middle ages and modern linguistics. 1. 1. 1. 1 antiquity Dating back to earlier period of linguistics, linguistics is often associated with a need to disambiguate discourse, oddly for ritual texts or in arguments. Ancient Indians made a big contri thoion to linguistics development. Similarly, ancient Chinese played a key authority in improving linguistics development. Around the corresponding cadence as the Indian true, ancient Greek philosophers were also debating the nature and origins of lyric.During this period, syntax and the use of particles developed fast. In addition, scholars proposed that word meanings atomic number 18 derived from sentential usage. 1. 1. 1. 2 Middle Ages In Middle East, in term of expanding Islam in 8th century, a large number of commonwealth learn Arabic. Because of this, the earliest grammar came to being gradu on the wholey. At the same time, Sibawayh, a famous scholar, wrote a book to distinguish phonetics from phonemics. In the 13th century, Europeans introduced the notion of world(a) grammar. 1. 1. 1. 3 Modern Linguistics Modern linguistics beginning can date back to the late 18th century.With time passing by, the translate of linguistics contains increasing contents. Meanwhile, it is use in other fields, computer, e. g. , has keep up to be called computational linguistics. The study of applications (as the re finish offy of speech ability) is generally cognize as applied linguistics. save now in a narrower sense, applied linguistics refers to the application of linguistic principles and theories of row doctrine and eruditeness, especially the teaching of unusual and turn language. Other colligate branches include anthropological linguistics, neurological linguistics, mathematical linguistics, and computational linguistics.However, linguistics is still a part of a much larger academic discipline, semiotics. It is the scientific study of language. It studies not just one item-by-item language of any one society, just like Chinese or French, but the language of all human beings. A linguist, though, does not have to know and use a large number of languages, but to investigate how each language is constructed. In short, linguistics studies the general principles whereupon all human languages atomic number 18 constructed and operated as systems of communication in their societies or communities. 1. 1. 2 An Interesting Comparison.Linguistics is a broad field to study, therefore, a linguist sometim es is only able to deal with one aspect of language at a time, and thus various branches arise phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, applied linguistics, pragmatics, psycholinguistics, lexicology, lexicography, etymology and so on. Suppose that the study of linguistics can be considered to be a computer, so linguistics is equal to the CPU, which supports all the other split. Moreover, sound card would stand for phonetics and phonology, and then morphology and semantics ar like the memory of the computer.Whats more, syntax plays as an important role to translate single words to a whole fourth dimension which is full of meaning, just like a graphics card, which uses picture to make sense of the idea of memory stick. Finally, allthing is ready, it s time to use computer and the same goes for language acquisition. Very interestingly, the properties of computer are amazingly similar to human language. from www. iflytek. com/english/Research-Introduction%20to%20TTS. htm Above all, linguistics is concerned with the study of verbal language particularly speech and indite language.Whats more, language is a system and there is a set of options of which one must be elect depending on the purpose and context. (Marie E. John P. , 1991, p. 64). 1. 2 The broad study of language language is a super complex system of communication, so it sometimes will be called a system of systems. It is used to construct, ex transfer, pull, and personality information and ideas. It performs these functions efficaciously because it is based upon systems that are understood by those using the language. In this chapter, four topics will be concerned.They are phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. In this section, some overall definitions and interactions among the four parts will be talked about. 1. 2. 1 Phonology In order to assist learners at the early stages of literacy, it is very important to understand the relationship between sounds and letter. The sound s of speech are studied in phonetics and phonology. (Marie E. John P, 1991) 1. 2. 1. 1 Definitions of phonology and phonetics Phonology is the study of sound systems- the invention of distinctive speech sounds that occurs in a language and the patterns wherein they fall.In other words, we study the abstract side of the sounds of language, a related but several(predicate) subject that we call phonology (Peter, 2000). In short, it is about patterns and roots. On the other hand, it is more strict linguistics. Phonetics is the science which studies the characteristics of human sound-ma ability, especially sounds used in speech, and provides modes for their description, classification and transcription. In common, speech sound is used everywhere, and it can be divided into three parts articulatory phonetics, auditory phonetics, and acoustic phonetics.1. 2. 1. 2 The difference between phonology and phonetics It seems that phonology and phonetics are similar. That is wherefore both of them make learners confused. In fact, they have great difference. Phonology pays attention to how speech sounds of a language pattern are put together according to regular rules. On the contrary, phonetics heightenes mainly on description of how speech sounds are made. For instance, if someone says we should get our two lips close together and then push them sacrifice with a strong air, that means he or she is relevant to phonetics field.Another pattern is no words should begin with the ng/N/ sound, the sound only occurs at the end of words, and this concerns phonology area. Plenty of terms are used to describe different patterns of letters and sounds. Some of the common used terms are blend, digraph, schwa, syllable and phonics, which are widely and frequently applied. 1. 2. 2 morphology Morphology has been regarded as a necessarily synchronic discipline. That means the rules focusing on the study of word structure instead of the development of words (Katamba, 1993, p.3).It is the basic element used in a language, and the concept of morphemes is one of the main aspects in the study of morphology (Yule, 2006, p. 66). Basically, it is the branch of linguistics that studies the internal structure of words. In morphology, morphemes are the minimal units that have semantic meaning. It is the linguistic term for the nigh elemental units of grammatic form (Fromkin, Rodman, Hyams, 2006, p. 77). 1. 2. 2. 1 The classification of morphemes Morphemes are composed of renounce and bound morphemes.Free morphemes are the morphemes that can stand by themselves as single words, while bound morphemes are those that can not normally stand alone, but that can be attached to affixes (Yule, 2000, p. 75). Free morphemes contain lexical and functional morphemes. The first category, free morphemes, is the set of ordinary nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs which hold out the content of the conveyed messages (Yule, 2000, p. 76), and most English words refer to this category. The functional morphemes consist for the most part of the functional words, including conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns (Yule, 2000). bounds morphemes can also be divided into two categories. They are derivational and inflectional morphemes. Derivational morphemes are those which make new words in the language and make words of a different grammatic category from the stem (Yule, 2000, p. 76), which means that it can variegate the meaning or the word class, whereas the inflectional morphemes are used to indicate aspects of the grammatical function of a word (Yule, 2000, p. 77). 1. 2. 2. 2 The interaction with other aspects Morphology has interactions with phonology.The selection of the form that manifests given morpheme may be affected by the sounds that realize neighboring morphemes (Katamba, 1993). For example, prefixes and suffixes will normally affect the stress. Meanwhile, there is interaction between morphology and syntax. The form of words may be influenced b y the syntactic construction in which the word is used (Katamba, 1993, p. 13). 1. 2. 3 Syntax So far in our study of language, we have made studies of phonetics, phonology and morphology. We have analyzed the structure of sounds and words. Therefore, we have been turn on the level of small units of language.After our epitome of words, we move to the consideration of larger structural units of language phrases and reprobates. If we concentrate on the structure and ordering of components within a sentence, we are studying what is technically known as the syntax of a language (Yule, 2000, p. 100). Syntax can be plainly be as the scientific study of sentence structure. According to Geoffrey (2005), syntax is a term used for the study of the rules authorities the way words are combined to form sentences. The origin of this word is from Greek and it means a setting out together or arrangement (Yule, 2000).In the sentence The boy hits the door, we can debunk that the words are relat ed to each other in this order that it only has one meaning. If we change the order of the words The door hits the boy, the sentences meaning has totally changed and it is nonsense. The reason is that the parts of the sentence are structurally related to each other, and this structure is reflected in the word order. In English, the word order is very requirement and important for the meaning of the sentence according to linguistic rules. In some languages, word order plays a less important role.The meaning of the sentence depends more on the form of the words themselves. In such cases, it is possible for sentences with totally different word order to have the same meaning. English used to be one of these languages. The following examples are taken from Old English Se cyning metech thone biscop-The king meets the bishop Thone biscop meteth se cyning-The king meets the bishop Although the words are arranged differently, they still mean the same. However, nowadays, the word order is very crucial for meaning. As a consequence, there is a great need for us to explore syntax.Some important concepts are included in the study of syntax. 1. 2. 3. 1Complex and compound sentence Three sentence types are basic in the syntax. There are simple sentence, compound sentence and complex sentence. A simple sentence includes one word. However, in some situation, the simple sentence contains two words. A compound sentence contains at to the lowest degree two simple sentences. The sentences are linked with a conjunction. A Complex sentence composes of at least one main clause and one subordinate clause. 1. 2. 3. 2 Syntax Analysis The following example is provided for syntax analysis. The football team won the match last year.S NP VP NP Det N Vt Det N Adv Ext(time) The football team won the match last year. The chart above is called tree diagram. The letters above each indicate S = sentence, NP = noun phrase, VP = verb phrase, N = noun, V = verb, and so on. The syntacticians use this method to analyze the sentences. 1. 2. 3. 3 Basic syntactical Structure In English, the structure of sentence depends heavily on word order. The four basic structures are listed as follows SNP + Vc + NP ( NPN, NP Det + N) SNP + VP ( NPN, VPVc + Adj) SNP + VP ( NPN, VPV) SNP + VP (NPN, VPVt + NP, NPDet + N) 1. 2. 3. 4 Basic Syntactic Generative Process.There are four basic syntactic generative processes substitution, expansion, extension, transformation. Take the following sentence as an example to clarify these three concepts. Ken is a ships officer. Substitution Ken is a policeman. tom turkey is a policeman. Expansion Ken is a policeman. Ken is a bad policeman. Extension Ken is a policeman. Ken is a policeman at that time. Transformation Ken is a policeman. Is Ken a policeman? 1. 2. 4 Semantics Semantics, a subfield of linguistics, is the study of literal meaning. It is the recent addition to the English language. (Palmer, 1976, p. 1).According to Matthews (2007), during the early old age the study of meaning focused on the lexicon alone. The scope of the study has expended since 1960s to include both semantics and pragmatics (analyzed in 1. 3), which come to the main fields of the study of linguistic meaning(Katamba, 2000 Matthews, 1997). Semantic meaning is fixed and abstract. It can be understood by surface. However, it is de-contextualized. In another word, it is slow subverted by different gestures or intonations. Semnatics interacts with other aspects of linguistics. For example, when synonyms are used, they can be understood, so it fits the rule of syntax.However, synonyms are used to describe something similar. In a sentence, a synonym can be substituted by another synonym. However, the meaning of synonyms announceer or writer determines or predicates have different degrees, which indicates the meaning is actually different (Alan, 2004). Thus, it is the interaction between syntax and semantics. As for the interaction with phonology, the term tonic syllable in phonology has three var.s of functions. The first one is the accentual function, which is to indicate the focus of the information. The s one is the attitudinal function that is to indicate the speakers attitude.And the last one is grammatical function. If speakers use these functions, the same sentence will turn out to have various meanings. To conclude, in this section, linguistics is analyzed from the aspects of sounds, word structure, grammatical rules and meaning. Each of them is in charge of a certain system. Thus linguistics can help people to communicate, to express, and to be understood. 1. 3 Other disciplines Apart from the core subparts of linguistics, which we have demonstrated before, for further reading, we introduce some other exciting aspects in the field of linguistics.There are a lot more to chance than those areas. 1. 3. 1 Sociolinguistics People may know something about you through the way you speak, for example, where you come from, whe re you spend most of your life time, your favorable identity and so on. Two people growing up in the same geographical area, at the same time, may speak differently owing to a number of considerably-disposed factors (Yule, 2000). Consequently, its very important to consider the social aspects of language. Its because speech is a form of social identity and is used, consciously or unconsciously (Yule, 2000).The study of the social aspect of language is known as sociolinguistic. Sociolinguistic is concerned with investigation of the relationship between language and society (Ronald, 2006, p. 13). It consists of cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. The first linguists who studied the social aspect of language are Indian and Nipponese in the 1930s. Another person called Gauchat who came from Switzerland had a analysis of this in 1900s as well. However, these three people didnt receive much attention in the West. Until the late 19th century, the stud y of social aspects of language lay its foundation.Sociolinguistics gradually appeared in the 1960s in the West. Linguistics such as William Labov in the US and sweet basil Bernstein in the UK first brought out this concept and explored it. (Wikipedia, 2007, para. 1) 1. 3. 2 Neurolinguistics Though the neural structures of most animal species are very distant from man, there are still resemblances between human and animal languages (Marler, 1981 Nottebohm, 1970), since neurons work in both. Human brain contains billions of neural cells, and so far, the exact number of those so-called neurons is still to be defined (Fabbro, 1999, p. 21).These teeny tiny neurons have close link with the production of language. There can be ignorant or learnt vocal voxs. Oral language can be the innate property of the human brain, written language, however, is an invention of humankind.Dogs can bark, cats can miaow, and man can cry even after the removal of the midbrain, whereas parrots cannot pur sue human sounds, and we cannot produce human language (Fabbro, 1999, p. 21). Therefore, the neural center of our brain is playing an irreplaceable role in the production of language. How does the main cerebral structure serve the production of humanvocalizations?The study of neurolinguistic commit on the study of neurology and neurophysiology, and in these fields, all parts of the nervous system, each having different functions in generating language, are discovered. Theories are found based on lots of experiments concerning the removals of different sections of the brain. The destruction of different language areas destroys language distinguishingly. 1. 3. 3 Historical linguistics Historical linguistics definitely is not concerned with the history of linguistics, though historical linguistics has played an important role in the development of linguistics.It is the main kind of linguistics practiced in the 19th century (Campbell, 1998, p. 5). Historical linguistics concerns the in vestigation and description of how languages change or maintain their structure in the course of time. Language change can be easily proved by documents written in the same language but at different periods of history. The differences of wording and structure of sentences can reflect the historical development of language. From series of datable documents, Lords invocation widely recorded the history of mankind, and different versions help us analyze the language of each period (Bynon, 1978, p.7). Meanwhile we can also discover that certain structure rules are still used in current language. There are some constructs and rule that link the grammars of two different but related languages, which descend from a single original language, sharing a common ancestor. More accurately, historical linguistics deals with the kinds of changes, and the techniques and methods we have use to discover history, rather than the origin of words themselves (Campbell, 1998, p. 5). 1. 3. 4 anthropologi cal linguistics Anthropological linguistic is the study of relations between language and culture.It is related to human biology, cognition and language. It belongs to the field of linguistic anthropology, which is a branch of anthropology that studies human-beings through the language they use(Wikipedia, 2007, para. 1). Some Linguists who explore theanthropological linguistics consider these topics such as chimpanzee communication, pidgins and creoles, structural linguistics,total languages, whorf hypothesis, etc. 1. 3. 5 Pragmatics According to Kate (2000), pragmatics is one of the two main fields in the study of linguistic meaning.Pragmatics deals with natural language, while language is always used in context for an think purpose. The listeners must try to grasp the meaning implied, enrich the ideas, and finally make out the opinion that what the speakers meant when talking about a particular expression (Kate, 2000). According to Yule (1996), pragmatics studies the context in w hich the utterance is produced as well as the intention of language user. That means pragmatic meaning depends on context or situation. Without context, meanings can be vague and may be misunderstood by people.Two of the branches are speech acts that cover requesting, commanding, questioning and informing, and politeness that shows the awareness of another persons face. In short, sociolinguistics is the analysis of interrelationship of language and society. Neurolinguistics is the study of the brain and how it functions in language. Historical linguistics is the consideration of language change and how different languages are related to each other. Anthropological linguistics is the study of language and culture. There are some other disciplines in linguistics. Pragmatics deals with the speakers meaning.The five mentioned above are some main disciplines in linguistics. distinct disciplines of linguistics enrich the content of linguistic. The study of linguistics tends to be more a nd more detailed and completed. 1. 4 Language Acquisition This chapter began with a general introduction to language study. It ends with a consideration of the acquisition of language, containing first, flake and foreign language, which is affected by the relationship between teacher and learner. Some experienced educators advise that it is only through learning to speak a language that you can fully analyze it (Everett 2001).Acquisition is described as occurring in spontaneous language contexts (Krashen, 1982), is subconscious, and leads to conversational fluency. 1. 4. 1 First language acquisition For a child, learning first language is automatic, not after starting school, not in specific status and not by great efforts (Yule, 2006). It requires only basic physical capability of sending and receiving sounds directly or indirectly, and interaction with others using this language. Children are brought up in particular environments, being affected by different surroundings, especi ally by those people whom they spend most of their time interacting with.Infants start express themselves through some simple utterance, such as some vowel-like sounds. Children gain increasing abilities at different development stages, from producing single-unit utterance to producing speech by communicating through expressions (Yule, 2006), since they are able to understand what others said. This a big feeling forward, like quitting toddling and being capable of walking steadily, forwards, or backwards. As children are being increasingly opened to communication and interaction, their language skills are developing rapidly because of the expansion of vocabulary.They are never forced to speak first language and seldom be corrected by others, but they correct themselves through interactions every day. Then children learn to use verbs in different sentences, and how to use different words to form a sentence (Yule, 2006). They gradually learn to ask questions correctly and how to use the word no in their speeches to express negative meanings. The last stage of first language acquisition is the ability of making meaningful sentence (Yule, 2006). There is massive variation in the rate at which features of ones first language are acquired.1. 4. 2 Second language acquisitionBeing able to speak first language is one of the basic skills of second language acquisition. Except for the minority of people who are bilingual speakers, most of the learners have no access to a second language until our late childhood.Actually most of the Chinese learners are now learning English as a foreign language, because it is immediately back to Chinese speaking time out of the classroom. But later on they may have the chance of learning it as a foreign language in a native speaking environment, during immersion semesters, when they will acquire this second language in circumstances similar to those of Chinese acquisition.There are obviously differences in foreign language achievement, sometimes related to differences in aptitude (Carroll, 1982), sometimes to affective factors (Gardner Lambert, 1972), sometimes to learner strategies (Naiman, Frohlicn, stern Tedesco, 1978), sometimes to environmental factors such as opportunities for language use or biddingal conditions (Long, 1982), and sometimes simply to time (Carroll, 1975). Human beings have the ability to learn more than one language all through ones live.Farwell (1963) (cited in Taylor, 1976) reports that a British explorer in the 19th century claimed to have spoken more than 40 languages and dialects. Usually, however, after the age of 10, the acquisition of second language is very different from the way one acquired his first language, which is relatively slower and cannot achieve native-like proficiency. 1. 4. 3 Educational factors Most of us begin learning second language in teenage years, spending only few hours on it every day and for most of the daily activities we use our mother tongue.According ly, we will encounter lots of difficulties in learning second language without enough exposure to it. Therefore, the largely distinguished part of acquiring first and second language should be language teachers. In order to learn a second language, we must learn from a teacher, or at least follow their guidance. The classroom is a very powerful instrument of instruction and it can control language learning in a very direct way (Richard, T. Roger,H. ). As language teachers, we should focus on students requirements and follow learner-centered approaches.We should impart knowledge in a more mulish way so the students can receive easily. Keep the class disciplined and orderly so that students can learn most effectively from the lessons. There are often the situations that the students seldom volunteer answers, and the teacher sometimes has to call on someone and wait for a long time before a answer is forthcoming. Why not try breaking away from typical Hong Kong classroom practices i n class? Like, students do not have to stand up to greet teachers, and they do not have to raise their pass on or stand up when they answer questions.In a relaxed classroom atmosphere, students will feel free to interact. They will not fall silent when the teacher enters the room, then stand up and chant a choral greeting. If the pupils are put in this position in the classroom, they can be more effectively kept in their place in social life. During the class, we teachers should never say like this I am your teacher. By the authority vested in me I have the right to ask you to behave in a certain way, whether you like it or not. And you, in your role have the obligation to obey (Widdowson, H. G. ).Whereas, we should say that in another way Do this because I am the teacher and I know whats best for you, but not Do this because I am telling you and I am the teacher. This difference has the advantage of largely increasing participation in the use and practice of language. 1. 4. 4 Sum mary Approaches to the acquisition of language account for different backgrounds of learns first language, and different conditions of exposure. In acquiring language, learners often go through transitional stages of development, which is at distinguished rates. References Cruse, A. (2004).Meaning in language an introduction to semantics and pragmatics. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press. Bynon, T. (1983). Historical Linguistics. 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