Friday, May 31, 2019

the patriot review :: essays research papers

The Patriot Movie Re hatfulThe Movie, The Patriot, was a rousing and vigorous Revolutionary War epic from the view point of a family full of revenge and strong wills. This exposure began with the majority of colonists angered. This part of the movie caught my attention and intrigued me to keep watching until the last minute. I oddly enjoyed the heartbreaking moments and the realistic war scenes in the movie. Although I liked those aspects of the movie, the storyline was exceptionally good as well. To understand this historical fiction movie, a historical background is needed. If a person does not understand what is meant by Taxation without representation, then the subject of conflict will not be understood. The plot of the movie began to develop when gum benjamin Martins son, Gabriel, was captured by British troops. Benjamin Martin was a former hero of the French and Indian War, but he renounced fighting so that he would be able to raise his family in peace. Attempting to save his brother, Benjamins other son stood up to the British soldiers, but was killed in the process. Benjamin, sole(prenominal) wanting to save Gabriel, ended up fighting in battle, rescuing Gabriel, and killing the murderer of his other son. After all of this happened Benjamin realized the importance of creation involved in the war, so he sent his other children to live with their aunt in order for he and Gabriel to join the army. Once they became part of the army, Benjamin became a general and lead his colonial militia, including Gabriel, into trifling battles. During battle Gabriel was killed, which deeply depressed Benjamin and made him so distraught that he does not feeling like fighting anymore. His feelings stayed this way until (while at the camp) he saw the Brit that killed Gabriel. Benjamin then killed that man and understood at that moment why so many men had been dieing. Because of this, Benjamin became extremely patriotic and decided to move on with the Americans becaus e he then had something to fight for. Everything that happened kept me on the edge of my run wanting to know what was going to happen next. Overall, I thought that this movie was very moving and vigorous.Although I enjoyed the main portion of the movie, there were some evident likes and dislikes in my opinion. I believe that I learned from this movie and it helped me understand more of what the people of that time were feeling.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Deaths of Mickey and Edward in Willy Russells Blood Brothers :: Russell Blood Brothers Death Essays

Deaths of Mickey and Edward in Willy Russells Blood BrothersAnd do we blame superstition for what came to pass? Or could it be what we, the English, get hold of came to know as class?Blood Brothers is a play set in Liverpool, Willy Russell wrote it in1983. Willy Russell has wrote plays based in Liverpool because this iswhere he was brought up as a kid in a working class family, BloodBrothers relates to this and aspects of class that he would haveexperienced when he lived there. Willy Russell grew up just after-school(prenominal)Liverpool, he left school when he was only 15 to become a hairdresser,it was in his early twenties when he decided to go corroborate to school andtake his O levels. His plays were about everyday circumstances and hisportrayal of life then. In this essay I intend to find out the rationalnessfor Mickey and Edwards deaths, whether it was superstition or class,I forget evaluate both of the possible causes and how they are usedwithin the play, then I will have to make a conclusion to which sideof the argument proves to be the correct one.The main sources of superstition revolve around Mrs Johnstone becauseshe is the character who believes that when certain things happenconsequences will unfold due to this. Willy Russell points thesesuperstitious events out to the audience, by using one of thecharacters to mention this or a song will be used to presentation somethingsuperstitious happening. At these stages in the play he is alreadyasking the audience whether they believe in superstition.The first incidence of superstition comes at the set out after theopening song this is when the audience finds out that Mrs Johnstoneis superstitious and that superstition may appear later in the play.Mrs Lyons enters Mrs Johnstones house and then there is a stagedirection saying that Mrs Lyons puts her new shoes on the table, MrsJohnstone replies to this angrily Jesus Christ, Mrs Lyons, what arey trying to do? At the bottom of the page where this happen s the teller says Theres shoes upon the table an a joker in the pack,the salts been spilled and the looking glass cracked, theres one lonemagpie overhead. The narrator is giving us examples of superstitions.Here he is trying to hint that something bad is going follow becauseof the shoes upon the table. After this it is possibly significantthat she claims not to be superstitious three times, three is meant tobe a lucky number but in her case it is unlucky because the

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

American Labor Movement: Development of Unions :: American America History

American Labor Movement Development of UnionsThe American Labor Movement of the nineteenth century developed as a resolution of the city-wide organizations that unhappy workers were establishing. These men and women were determined to receive the rights and privileges they deserved as citizens of a free country. They refused to be treated like slaves, and work under unbearable conditions every longer. Workers joined together and realized that a group is much more powerful than an individual when protesting against intimidating companies. Unions, coalitions of workers pursuing a common objective, began to form demanding still ten instead of twelve hours in a work day. Workers realized the importance of economic and legal protection against the powerful employers who took advantage of them. (AFL-CIO American Federalist, 1)The beginnings of the American Labor Movement started with the Industrial Revolution. Textile mills were the first factories built in the United States. Once factor y systems began to grow, a demand for workers increased. They hired capacious amounts of young women and children who were expected to do the same work as men for less wages. New immigrants were also employed and called free workers because they were unskilled. These immigrants poured into cities, despe post for any gracious of work.(Working People, 1)Child labor in the factories was not only common, but necessary for a familys income. Children as young as five or six man machines or did jobs such as sweeping floors to earn money. It was dangerous, and they were often hurt by the large, heavy machinery. No laws prevented the factories from using these children, so they continued to do so. (AACTchrNET, 1)Sweatshops were created in crowded, unsanitary tenements. These were makeshift construction houses, dirty and unbearably hot. They were usually formed for the construction of garments. The wages, as in factories, were pitifully low, no benefits were made, and the worker was paid by the number of pieces he or she completed in a day. Unrealistic demands were put on the workers who could barely afford to support their families. (1)The United States had the highest job-related fatality rate of any other industrialized nation in the world. Everyone worked eighty hours or more a week for extremely low wages. Men and women earned xx to forty percent less than the minimum deemed necessary for a decent life. The number was even worse for children. (Department of Humanities Computing, 2) Often workers would go home later a long day and have to continue work on an unfinished product, which they had to return to the factory in the morning.

We Should Make Snow on the Mountain Essay -- Argumentative Persuasive

We Should Make Snow on the MountainThe varying opinions on whether snow should be made on the Snowbowl Ski Mountain in Flagstaff, Arizona assume grown to become a statewide debate. Snowbowl is one of the sacred mountains in the San Francisco Peaks that is precise meaningful to the Native people. If snow were to be made on the mountain, it would interfere with the beliefs of many people. On the other hand, many Arizona residents rely on the locomote area for its incoming business, recreation, and for providing jobs to many people. The dispute on the expansion of the ski area and the making of snow has continued to be discussed for the last fifteen years. The tribes support their lands are very confident in the decisions the study Forest has been faced with. Should snow be made on Snowbowl Mountain? The answer is fast approaching. The National Forest Department of Coconino is taking the final public response on the proposed action before a decision is made. It is clear, though, th at the proposed improvements for Snowbowl bring about many proscribe factors such as interfering with the Native beliefs, the effects it go out have on the economy, and the costliness of the expansion. This almost makes the proposed plan not worth the effort.First, the Natives beliefs in this area are very important because the land is so sacred to them. They do not want it to be destroyed. Its something so wound up to the Hopi people. The Peaks are part of our everyday lives. Its not just a significant landscape it carries the essence of our life as well. Kuwanwisiwma, chief of the local Hopi tribe, states in an article published in the Arizona Daily Sun (2002). This project is also very unnatural towards the environment. The making of snow is not... ...f you want to put it into horse opera perspective. In a letter written by the Forest Supervisor, published by the United States Department of Agriculture (2004), Jim Golden, he insures that a decision entrust be returned to th e public on the proposed action at some point in the next three seasons to come, this was in the season of 2002.Although the snowfall this year looks bright so far, there is no guarantee that the area will pull through. With the thirteen Native tribes strongly opposing all proposals, the effect it will have on the economy, and the costliness of the entire plan all working against the project proposal, the Snowbowl expansion may be set aside for more time to come. self-colored the needs of the two opposing sides will be difficult, but the community will come to realize that the economy of Flagstaff and surrounding people will be affected greatly.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Busting Bureaucracy with Radical Management: Forbes Magazine Article Cr

Busting Bureaucracy with Radical prudence Forbes Magazine Article CritiqueThe article written by Steve Denning is covered in Forbes magazine to intro the innovative and forward thinking studies that delves into why the Max Weber coordinate of management fails in todays management model (Daniels, 2010). The article is non complex and does not create a new basis, but rather reconstitutes the six bureaucratic principals developed by Weber in the early 1900s (Daniels, 2010). With the six principals as a solid foundation, Denning (2011) explains and proves a modern fit, custom tailored, model of management for the 21st century. Statement of the ProblemSince the early 1900s the principals of the bureaucratic management structure bring in been bred into all white-collar hotshots. This instance of management model was ideal with respect to the economical and social environment of that time period. While Webers six principals have stayed the same, the economical and social environm ent has changed exponentially in time with our societies technological advances (Dennings, 2011). With a new society, what was feasible in the 1900s does not sit sound in the 21st century. This type of management hinders rather than helps, for example, Jones (2010) explains, that an over-developed bureaucracy can delay decision-making procedures and increase costs due to a tall and centralized type of hierarchy structure in an organization. When there is a multilayered wall of officialdom between the problem and the solution, this waste of time and causes unneeded corporate stress. Moreover, Denning states that the default affable model of management is not conducive for the once successful bureaucratic management methods (Forbes, 2011).Descripti... ...lateau with their shareholders or managers. Either way, there are a vast beat of inconclusive variables that could have accounted for the drastic display of data over the ten-year span. Works CitedDenning, S. (201 1). Busting Bureaucracy with Radical Management Management Innovation eXchange. Hack Management 2.0 Management Innovation eXchange. Retrieved May 5, 2012, from http//, G. (2010). Organizational, Theory, Design, and Change. Upper Saddle River Pearson. (Original work published 2001)The MIX Busting Bureaucracy with Radical Management - Forbes. (2011). Information for the Worlds Business leading - Retrieved May 5, 2012, from http//

Busting Bureaucracy with Radical Management: Forbes Magazine Article Cr

Busting Bureaucracy with Radical prudence Forbes Magazine Article CritiqueThe article written by Steve Denning is covered in Forbes magazine to expose the innovative and forward thinking studies that delves into why the Max Weber construction of management fails in todays management model (Daniels, 2010). The article is non complex and does not create a new basis, but rather reconstitutes the six bureaucratic principals developed by Weber in the early 1900s (Daniels, 2010). With the six principals as a solid foundation, Denning (2011) explains and proves a modern fit, custom tailored, model of management for the 21st century. Statement of the ProblemSince the early 1900s the principals of the bureaucratic management structure set about been bred into all white-collar hotshots. This quality of management model was ideal with respect to the economical and social environment of that time period. While Webers six principals have stayed the same, the economical and social envir onment has changed exponentially in time with our societies technological advances (Dennings, 2011). With a new society, what was feasible in the 1900s does not sit come up in the 21st century. This type of management hinders rather than helps, for example, Jones (2010) explains, that an over-developed bureaucracy can delay decision-making procedures and increase costs due to a tall and centralized type of hierarchy structure in an organization. When there is a multilayered wall of officialdom between the problem and the solution, this waste of time and causes unneeded corporate stress. Moreover, Denning states that the default cordial model of management is not conducive for the once successful bureaucratic management methods (Forbes, 2011).Descripti... ...lateau with their shareholders or managers. Either way, there are a vast marrow of inconclusive variables that could have accounted for the drastic display of data over the ten-year span. Works CitedDenning, S. (2011). Busting Bureaucracy with Radical Management Management Innovation eXchange. Hack Management 2.0 Management Innovation eXchange. Retrieved May 5, 2012, from http//, G. (2010). Organizational, Theory, Design, and Change. Upper Saddle River Pearson. (Original work published 2001)The MIX Busting Bureaucracy with Radical Management - Forbes. (2011). Information for the Worlds Business leadership - Retrieved May 5, 2012, from http//

Monday, May 27, 2019

Facilitate Coaching And Mentoring Essay

1 Understand the benefits of coach and mentoring practitioners in health and social take or children and materialisation massess shots 1.1 Analyse the differences between coaching and mentoring 1.2 condone circumstances when coaching would be an appropriate method of supporting tuition at work 1.3 Explain circumstances when mentoring would be an appropriate method of supporting learning at work 1.4 Explain how coaching and mentoring complement other(a) methods of supporting learning 1.5 Analyse how coaching and mentoring at work can promote the business objectives of the work setting 1.6 appreciate the management implications of supporting coaching and mentoring in the work setting 1.7 Explain how coaching and mentoring in the work setting can contribute to a learning culture 1.8 Explain the brilliance of meeting the learning of necessity of coaches and mentors 2 Be able to promote coaching and mentoring of practitioners in health and social care or children and young peop les settings2.1 Promote the benefits of coaching and mentoring in the work setting 2.2 corroboration practitioners to identify learning needs where it would be appropriate to use coaching 2.3 Support practitioners to identify learning needs where it would be appropriate to use mentoring 2.4 Explain the different types of information, advice and guidance that can support learning in the work setting 2.5 Demonstrate a solutionfocused approach to promoting coaching and mentoring in the work setting 3 Be able to identify the coaching and mentoring needs of practitioners in health and social care or children and young peoples settings 3.1 Use different information sources to determine the coaching and mentoring needs of practitioners in the work setting 3.2 Plan coaching and mentoring activities4 Be able to implement coaching and mentoring activities in health and social care or children and young peoples settings 4.1 Support the implementation of coaching and mentoring activities 4.2 S elect the most appropriate person to act as coach or mentor 4.3 Explain the support needs of those who are working with peers as coaches or mentors 4.4 Provide coaching in a work setting according to the agreed visualize 4.5 Provide mentoring in a work setting according to the agreed plan 5 Be able to review the outcomes of coaching and mentoring in health and social care or children and young peoples settings 5.1 Review how the use of coaching and mentoring in the work setting has supported business objectives 5.2 Evaluate the impact of coaching and mentoring on practice 5.3 Develop plans to support the future development of coaching and mentoring in the work setting

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Pifzer Inc.’s Cost of Capital and Capital Structure

Pfizer Inc. S toll of Capital and Capital structure Xiaoyue Shi The costs of capital and capital structures for Pfizer Inc. and its two competitors Merck & Co. Inc. and Johnson & Johnson in the pharmaceutical industry are analyzed in this memo. When calculating the cost of common stock for the terce companies, three different cash advancees including Capital Asset set Model (CAPM), Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) and the bond yield plus risk premium are applied ( vermiform appendix A). For CAPM approach ( body-build 1 & 3), the risk-free rate (rRF) use is the rate on the U. S. 10-year Treasury bonds, which is 1. 66.The market risk premium (RPM) is the required elapse on the stock market minus rRF. The required market return apply here is the average 20 years pass judgment of return on S&P 500. With highest beta (0. 71), Merck has the higher estimated cost of honor (6. 167). Pfizer has dismantle estimated cost of equity (5. 910) with lower beta (0. 67). Because of the lowest bet a (0. 48), Johnson & Johnson has the lowest estimated cost of equity (4. 697). For DCF approach ( routine 2 & 4), the stock price used is the new stock price. The expected proceeds rate (g) is the annualized crop rate based on the dividend growth over the past 10 years.Among the three companies, Johnson & Johnson has the highest estimated cost of equity due to its highest expected growth rate in dividends. Pfizers estimated cost of equity is much lower than Johnson & Johnson. Having the lowest expected growth rate in dividends, Merck has the lowest cost of equity. For bond yield plus risk premium approach ( go steady 5), the bond yield (Figure 7) for Pfizer, Merck and Johnson & Johnson are 2. 0724, 2. 5553, and 1. 9629 respectively. Since their betas are Pfizer 0. 67, Merck 0. 71 and Johnson & Johnson 0. 48, and completely under 1, the three companies judgmental risk premium estimated as 3. , 3. 4, and 3, respectively. According to the bond yield plus risk premium method, the e stimated costs of equity are Pfizer 5. 3724, Merck 5. 9553, Johnson & Johnson 4. 9629. The last estimated costs of equity for the three companies in this memo are the averages of the three approaches (Figure 6), and they are Pfizer 5. 83, Merck 4. 44, Johnson & Johnson 7. 36. The three companies do not offer preferred stocks in state-supported ( accessory B). Their costs of preferred stock would be zero. Although Pfizer offer Preferred stock for their employees, its costs of preferred stock still estimated as zero.According to the debt-rating organizations such as heavys, S&P, the three companies bond ratings are very high (Figure 7). The tax rates used for calculating the costs of debt are the average tax rates for the last four years (Appendix C, Figure 10). And their after-tax cost of debts are similarly low, for example, Pfizer 1. 657, Merck 1. 991, Johnson & Johnson 1. 528 (Figure 9). When calculating the percentage of debt and common equity (Appendix D, Figure 12), the comm on equity used is the market apprise of equity, and the book value of companys debt is used as a proxy of the market value of debt.According to the formula in Appendix D, the weighted average costs of capital (WACC) for the three companies are Pfizer 1. 86, Merck 2. 17, Johnson & Johnson 2. 15. The WACCs are quit low for the three companies as pharmaceutical giants. The debt ratios for last four years for the three companies were exclusively around 50% (Appendix E, Figure 13). For example, in 2008, Pfizers debt ratio was 48. 1%, Merck was 55. 2%, Johnson & Johnson was 49. 9% in 2009, Pfizer was 57. 5%, Merck was 45. 5%, Johnson & Johnson was 46. 6% in 2010, Pfizer was 54. 7%, Merck was 46. 3%, Johnson & Johnson was 45% in 2011, Pfizer was 56. %, Merck was 45. 8%, Johnson & Johnson was 49. 8%. Pfizers debt ratios were a little higher than its two competitors. But they all nourish quite similar capital structures with similar borrowing capacities. The three companies assets are fin anced with around 50% equity, and their risks of bankruptcy are low. Because involved in the pharmaceutical industry, the three companies are focusing on R&D, innovation and raise productivity, which are very costly for them. The three companies all have a lot borrowings. medicate development needs a lot of resources and quite inefficient.High failure rates cause a lot pharmaceutical companies unable to make profit and went bankruptcy. base on the circumstances, the three companies all have very good capital structures in the pharmaceutical industry. They may have to figure out a sort to cut their costs, and have even better capital structures. Pfizer used accelerated depreciation methods for tax purpose. Its depreciation & amortization increased a lot since 2009 (Appendix F, Figure 14). For example, it was $5,090 million in 2008, and $4,757 million in 2009, but it was $8487 million in 2010, and $9026 million in 2011.The huge increase in depreciation was mainly because of the un ification with Wyeth in 2009. Merck mainly used accelerated depreciation methods for tax purpose except that its depreciation on intangibles was applied with primarily straight-line methods. Its depreciation & amortization in addition increased since 2009. For instance, it was $1,631. 2 million in 2008, and $2,576 million in 2009, but it was $7,381 million in 2010, and $7,427 million in 2011. The increase in depreciation was to a fault because of the merger. Merck was also involved in a merger with another pharmaceutical company Schering-Plough in 2009.Johnson & Johnson had quite stable depreciations. And the straight-line methods were applied in this company. The three companies all paid stable dividends in last four years (Appendix G). Pfizer paid lowest dividends among them. Johnson & Johnson paid highest dividends. Only Johnson & Johnson performed stock repurchases (Figure 15 & 16). They (in shares) were 100,970 thousands in 2008, 37,114 thousands in 2009, 45,090 thousands in 2 010, 39,741 thousands in 2011. And the money (in millions) used for stock repurchases was $6,651 in 2008, $2,130 in 2009, $2,797 in 2010, $2,525 in 2011.In my point of view, Pfizer and its two competitors Merck and Johnson & Johnson all have low cost of capital. Although they all involved in a lot borrowings , they all have very good capital structures as pharmaceutical companies. The reason is that the costs in R&D and innovation are extremely high in the pharmaceutical industry. Reference 1. Brigham, Eugene F. and Michael C. Ehrhardt. Financial Management Theory and Practice, 13th Edition, Thompson South-Western, ISBN-13 978-14390-7809-9, ISBN-101-4390-7809-2 2. http//www. mergentonline. com/login. php 3. http//www. how. com/how_5833592_determine-target-debt-equity. html 4. http//cxa. gtm. idmanagedsolutions. com/finra/BondCenter/Watchlist. aspx 5. ww. finra. org 6. http//www3. valueline. com/vlquotes/quote. aspx Appendices Appendix A cost of common stock Appendix B salute of p referred stock Appendix C Cost of debt Appendix D Weighted reasonable Cost of Capital (WACC) Appendix E Capital Structure Appendix F Depreciation Appendix G Yearly dividend and share repurchase Appendix H Value Line reports Appendix A Cost of common stock Equations used for calculating cost of common stockCAPM approach rS=rRF+(RPM)bi DCF approach The bond yield plus risk premium approach rS=Companys own bond yield + Judgmental risk premium Figure 1 CAPM Equation Variables Pfizer Merck J&J put on the line Free Rate 1. 66 1. 66 1. 66 Required Rate of Return 8. 00 8. 00 8. 00 Beta 0. 67 0. 71 0. 48 Required Return on argumentation 5. 91 6. 17 4. 70 Required Return on rake Pfizer Merck J&J 5. 91 6. 17 4. 70 Figure 2 Annualized dividend growth rate (g) PfizerYear Sum dividend Total growth over 10 years Annualized growth rate (g) future(a) expected dividend 2011 0. 8 2010 0. 72 2009 0. 8 2008 1. 28 2007 1. 16 2006 0. 96 2005 0. 76 2004 0. 68 2 003 0. 6 2002 0. 52 2001 0. 44 0. 818181818 6. 16% $0. 85 Merck Year Sum dividend Total growth over 10 years Annualized growth rate (g) Next expected dividend 2011 1. 56 2010 1. 52 2009 1. 52 2008 1. 52 2007 1. 52 2006 1. 52 2005 1. 52 2004 1. 5 2003 3. 976 2002 1. 3 2001 1. 39 0. 122302158 1. 16% $1. 58 J&J Year Sum dividend Total growth over 10 years Annualized growth rate (g) Next expected dividend 2011 2. 25 2010 2. 11 2009 1. 93 2008 1. 795 2007 1. 62 2006 1. 455 2005 1. 275 2004 1. 095 2003 0. 925 2002 0. 795 2001 0. 7 2. 214285714 12. 39% $2. 53 Figure 3 CAPM CAPM Risk Free Rate (1) Required commercialize Return (2) Market Risk Premium (3)=(2)-(1) Beta (4) Estimated cost of rectitude (1)+(3)? (4) Pfizer 1. 66 8. 00 6. 34 0. 67 5. 10 Merck 1. 66 8. 00 6. 34 0. 71 6. 167 J&J 1. 66 8. 00 6. 34 0. 48 4. 697 Figure 4 DCF DCF Stock Price (1) Next Expected Dividend (2) Expected Growth Rate ( 3) Estimated cost of lawfulness (2)/(1)+(3) Pfizer 25. 12 $0. 85 6. 16 6. 194 Merck 45. 62 $1. 58 1. 16 1. 195 J&J 67. 97 $2. 53 12. 39 12. 427 Figure 5 Bond Yield plus Risk Premium Companys Bond Yield (1) Judgmental Risk Premium (2) Estimated cost of Equity (1)+(2) Pfizer 2. 0724 3. 3 5. 3724 Merck 2. 5553 3. 4 5. 9553 J&J 1. 629 3 4. 9629 Figure 6 Estimated Cost of Equity Estimated Cost of Equity Pfizer 5. 83 Merck 4. 44 J&J 7. 36 Figure 7 Bond Data Bond Data Bond Symbol Issuer Name Coupon due date Callable Moodys SP Fitch Price Yield PFE. GF PFIZER INC 4. 65 3/1/18 No A1 AA A+ 116. 189 1. 501 PFE. GI PFIZER INC 4. 5 2/15/14 No A1 AA A+ 105. 468 0. 367 PFE. GM PFIZER INC 7. 2 3/15/39 Yes A1 AA A+ 159. 019 3. 685 PFE. GO PFIZER INC 6. 2 3/15/19 Yes A1 AA A+ 127. 5 1. 66 PFE. GQ PFIZER INC 5. 5 3/15/15 Yes A1 AA A+ 111. 554 0. 521 PFE3666215 AMERICAN HOME PRODS CORP 7. 25 3/1/23 No A1 AA A+ 139. 65 2. 819 PFE36677 44 WYETH 5. 5 2/15/16 Yes A1 AA A+ 115. 705 0. 715 PFE3667745 WYETH 6 2/15/36 Yes A1 AA A+ 134 3. 791 PFE3667909 PHARMACIA CORP 6. 5 12/1/18 Yes A1 AA A+ 128. 14 1. 677 PFE3667915 PHARMACIA CORP 6. 75 12/15/27 No A1 AA A+ 137. 221 3. 552 PFE3667927 PHARMACIA CORP 6. 6 12/1/28 Yes A1 AA A+ 138. 179 3. 484 PFE3670301 WYETH 5. 45 4/1/17 Yes A1 AA A+ 119. 153 1. 044 PFE3670315 WYETH 5. 95 4/1/37 Yes A1 AA A+ 135 3. 5 PFE3702946 WYETH 5. 5 3/15/13 Yes A1 AA A+ 101. 977 0. 706 PFE3703979 PHARMACIA CORP 8. 7 10/15/21 No A1 AA A+ 142. 03 - PFE3704635 WYETH 5. 5 2/1/14 Yes A1 AA A+ 106. 52 0. 421 PFE3704636 WYETH 6. 45 2/1/24 Yes A1 AA A+ 138. 004 2. 553 PFE3704637 WYETH 6. 5 2/1/34 Yes A1 AA A+ 139. 025 3. 807 PFE3706578 PHARMACIA CORP 8. 2 4/15/25 Yes A1 AA A+ 101. 5 - PFE3739069 KING PHARMACEUTICALS INC 1. 25 4/1/26 Yes NR NR NR 99. 99 1. 25 honest 2. 072388889 MRK. GA MERCK CO INC 6. 3 1/1/26 No Aa3 AA A+ 138. 945 2. 76 MRK.GB MERCK CO INC 6. 4 3/1/28 Yes Aa3 AA A+ 137. 464 3. 278 MRK. GC MERCK CO INC 5. 95 12/1/28 Yes Aa3 AA A+ 133. 211 3. 28 MRK. GF MERCK CO INC MTN BE 5. 76 5/3/37 No Aa3 AA A+ 131 3. 808 MRK. GG MERCK CO INC MTN BE - 11/27/40 No Aa3 AA A+ 98. 25 - MRK. GH MERCK CO INC MTN BE - 12/21/40 Yes Aa3 AA A+ 98 - MRK. GI MERCK CO INC MTN BE - 12/27/40 No Aa3 AA A+ 98. 5 - MRK. GJ MERCK CO INC MTN BE - 2/6/41 No Aa3 AA A+ 98 - MRK. GK MERCK CO INC MTN BE - 6/21/41 Yes Aa3 AA A+ 100 - MRK. GL MERCK amp CO INC MTN BE - 7/18/41 No Aa3 AA A+ 97. 75 - MRK. GM MERCK CO INC MTN BE - 12/21/41 Yes Aa3 AA A+ 100 - MRK. GN MERCK CO INC MTN BE - 11/28/41 No Aa3 AA A+ 98. 25 - MRK. GQ MERCK CO INC MTN BE - 8/22/42 Yes Aa3 AA A+ 98. 275 - MRK. GR MERCK CO INC MTN BE - 2/18/43 Yes Aa3 AA A+ 99. 875 - MRK. GT MERCK CO INC MTN BE - 2/12/44 Yes Aa3 AA A+ 100 - MRK. GU MERCK CO INC 4. 75 3/1/15 Yes Aa3 AA A+ 109. 512 0. 699 MRK. GV MERCK CO INC 5. 75 11/15/36 Yes Aa3 AA A+ 135. 683 3. 536 MRK. GW MERCK CO INC 4. 8 2/15/13 No Aa3 AA A+ 101. 369 0. 1 94 MRK. GX MERCK CO INC NEW 3. 88 1/15/21 Yes A1 AA A+ 114. 717 1. 883 MRK3671638 SCHERING PLOUGH CORP 6. 55 9/15/37 Yes Aa3 AA A+ 149. 11 3. 56 Average 2. 555333333 JNJ. GA ALZA CORP DEL - 7/14/14 Yes Aa1 abdominal aortic aneurysm abdominal aortic aneurysm 152. 8 - JNJ. GC ALZA CORP - 7/28/20 Yes Aa1 abdominal aortic aneurysm AAA 98. 75 - JNJ. GH JOHNSON JOHNSON 6. 73 11/15/23 No abdominal aortic aneurysm AAA AAA 145. 758 2. 083 JNJ. GI - 11/1/24 No NR NR NR 104. 36 - JNJ. GJ JOHNSON JOHNSON 6. 95 9/1/29 No abdominal aortic aneurysm AAA AAA 144. 925 3. 422 JNJ. GL JOHNSON JOHNSON 3. 5/15/13 No abdominal aortic aneurysm AAA AAA 102. 04 0. 263 JNJ. GM JOHNSON JOHNSON 4. 95 5/15/33 No Aaa AAA AAA 121. 154 3. 499 JNJ. GO JOHNSON JOHNSON 5. 55 8/15/17 Yes Aaa AAA AAA 121. 81 0. 932 JNJ. GP JOHNSON JOHNSON 5. 95 8/15/37 Yes Aaa AAA AAA 143. 163 3. 369 JNJ. GQ JOHNSON JOHNSON 5. 15 7/15/18 Yes Aaa AAA AAA 123. 223 0. 982 JNJ. GR JOHNSON JOHNSON 5. 85 7/15/38 Yes Aaa AAA AAA 143. 093 3. 341 JNJ. GS JOHNSON JOHNSON 2. 95 9/1/20 Yes Aaa AAA AAA 107. 12 1. 969 JNJ. GT JOHNSON JOHNSON 4. 5 9/1/40 Yes Aaa AAA AAA 123. 32 3. 229 JNJ. GU JOHNSON JOHNSON - 5/15/13 No Aaa AAA AAA 100. 154 - JNJ. GV JOHNSON JOHNSON - 5/15/14 No Aaa AAA AAA 100. 322 - JNJ. GW JOHNSON JOHNSON 2. 15 5/15/16 Yes Aaa AAA AAA 105. 523 0. 588 JNJ. GX JOHNSON JOHNSON 4. 85 5/15/41 Yes Aaa AAA AAA 125. 764 3. 428 JNJ. GY JOHNSON JOHNSON 1. 2 5/15/14 Yes Aaa AAA AAA 101. 399 0. 311 JNJ. GZ JOHNSON JOHNSON 3. 55 5/15/21 Yes Aaa AAA AAA 113. 786 1. 807 JNJ. HA JOHNSON JOHNSON 0. 7 5/15/13 No Aaa AAA AAA 100. 278 0. 22 Average 1. 62866667 Appendix B Cost of preferred stock Figure 8 Cost of Preferred Stock Cost of Preferred Stock Preferred Dividend (1) Preferred Stock Price (2) Floatation Cost (3) Component cost of Preferred Stock(1)/(2)*(1-(3)) Pfizer N/A N/A N/A VALUE Merk N/A N/A N/A VALUE JJ N/A N/A N/A VALUE Appendix C Cost of debt After-tax cost of debt=rd(1- T) Figure 9 After-tax cost of debt After Tax Component Cost of Debt Interest Rate Tax Rate Cost of Debt Pfizer 2. 072388889 0. 2003 1. 657289394 Merck 2. 555333333 0. 221 1. 990604667 JJ 1. 962866667 0. 2218 1. 2750284 Figure 10 Marginal tax rate Company Pfizer Merck JJ Year 2011 2010 2009 2008 2011 2010 2009 2008 2011 2010 2009 2008 Income before tax 12,764 9,282 10,674 9,694 7,334 1,653 15,290 9,931 12,361 16,947 15,755 16,929 Provision for tax 4,023 1,071 2,145 1,645 942 671 2,268 1,999 2,689 3,613 3,489 3,980 Tax rate 0. 3152 0. 1154 0. 2010 0. 1697 0. 1284 0. 4059 0. 1483 0. 2013 0. 2175 0. 2132 0. 2215 0. 2351 Average tax rate 0. 2003 0. 2210 0. 2218 Appendix D Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) Figure 11 WACC WACC % of Debt Cost of Debt % of Preferred Stock Cost of Preferred Stock % of plebeian Equity Cost of commonplace Equity WACC Pfizer 95. 15% 1. 66 4. 85% 5. 83 1. 86 Merck 92. 50% 1. 99 7. 50% 4. 44 2. 17 JJ 89. 26% 1. 53 10. 74% 7. 36 2. 15 % of Debt, and % of ballpark Equity are the target proportions. Figure 12 Calculating the percentage of debt and common equity Pfizer Merck JJ Shares outstanding (million) 7,470 3,050 2,750 Market value per share 26. 03 47. 96 72. 52 Market value of equity ($ million), E 194,444. 146,278. 0 199,430. 0 Book value of equity per share 10. 64 18. 16 20. 95 Total book value of equity 79,480. 8 55,388. 0 57,612. 5 Debt/Equity ratio 48. 26 32. 91 29. 07 Book value of debt 3,835,743. 41 1,822,819. 08 1,674,795. 38 Cash on hand 24,340 17,450 16,920 Net debt ($ million), D 3,811,403 1,805,369 1,657,875 Percentage of debt, D/(E+D) 95. 15% 92. 50% 89. 26% Percentage of equity, E/(E+D) 4. 85% 7. 50% 10. 74% Appendix E Capital Structure Figure 13 Capital Structure Capital Structure Pfizer 2011 2010 2009 2008 large Term Debt* 34,931,000. 00 38,410,000 43,193,000 7,963,000 Common Stock* 445,000 444,000 443,000 443,000 Retained Earnings* 46 ,210,000 42,716,000 40,426,000 49,142,000 Redeemable Preferred Stock* 45,000 52,000 61,000 73,000 Total 81,631,000. 00 81,622,000. 00 84,123,000. 00 57,621,000. 00 % of Debt 42. 79% 47. 06% 51. 35% 13. 82% % of Preferred Stock 0. 06% 0. 06% 0. 07% 0. 13% % of Common Equity 57. 15% 52. 88% 48. 58% 86. 05% Total % 100. 00% 100. 00% 100. 00% 100. 00% Average/Target % of Debt 38. 75% 95. 15% Average/Target % of Preferred Stock 0. 08% 0. 00% Average/Target % of Common Equity 61. 17% 4. 85% Total Debt* 105,381,000 106,749,000 122,503,000 53,408,000 Total Assets* 188,002,000 195,014,000 212,949,000 111,148,000 Total Debt/Total Assets 56. 1% 54. 7% 57. 5% 48. 1% Merck 2011 2010 2009 2008 Long Term Debt* 15,525,000 15,482,000 16,074,900 3,943,300 Common Stock* 1,788,000 1,788,000 1,781,300 29,800 Retained Earnings* 38,990,000 37,536,000 41,404,900 43,698,800 Redeemable Preferred Stock* Total 56,303,000. 0 54,806,000. 00 59,261,100. 00 47,671,900 . 00 % of Debt 27. 57% 28. 25% 27. 13% 8. 27% % of Preferred Stock 0. 00% 0. 00% 0. 00% 0. 00% % of Common Equity 72. 43% 71. 75% 72. 87% 91. 73% Total % 100. 00% 100. 00% 100. 00% 100. 00% Average/Target % of Debt 22. 81% 92. 50% Average/Target % of Preferred Stock 0. 00% 0% Average/Target % of Common Equity 77. 19% 7. 50% Total Debt* 48,185,000 48,976,000 50,597,100 26,028,600 Total Assets* 105,128,000 105,781,000 112,089,700 47,195,700 Total Debt/Total Assets 45. % 46. 3% 45. 1% 55. 2% JJ 2011 2010 2009 2008 Long Term Debt* 12,969,000 9,156,000 8,223,000 8,120,000 Common Stock* 3,120,000 3,120,000 3,120,000 3,120,000 Retained Earnings* 81,251,000 77,773,000 70,306,000 63,379,000 Redeemable Preferred Stock* Total 97,340,000. 00 90,049,000. 00 81,649,000. 00 74,619,000. 00 % of Debt 13. 32% 10. 17% 10. 07% 10. 88% % of Preferred Stock 0. 00% 0. 00% 0. 00% 0. 00% % of Common Equity 86. 68% 89. 83% 89. 93% 89. 12% Total % 100. 00% 10 0. 0% 100. 00% 100. 00% Average/Target % of Debt 11. 11% 89. 26% Average/Target % of Preferred Stock 0. 00% 0% Average/Target % of Common Equity 88. 89% 10. 74% Total Debt* 56,564,000 46,329,000 44,094,000 42,401,000 Total Assets* 113,644,000 102,908,000 94,682,000 84,912,000 Total Debt/Total Assets 49. 8% 45. 0% 46. 6% 49. 9% * $ in thousands Appendix F Depreciation Figure 14 Depreciation Depreciation USEFUL LIVES Pfizer (YEARS) 2011 2010 2009 2008 attribute Accelerated depreciation methodsClasses of Assets and Depreciation Ranges Land Buildings 33 1/3-50 Machinery and equipment 8-20 Furniture, fixtures and other 3-12 1/2 Construction in progress Depreciation Amortization** 9,026 8,487 4,757 5,090 Merck USEFUL LIVES (YEARS) 2011 2010 2009 2008 Type Accelerated depreciation methods Classes of Assets and Depreciation Ranges Buildings 10-50 Machinery Equipment 3-15 Capitalized parc el 3-5 Construction in progress Products and product rights, trade names and patents 3-40 Primarily straight- line methods Depreciation Amortization** 7,427 7,381 2,576 1,631. 2 JJ USEFUL LIVES (YEARS) 2011 2010 2009 2008 Type Straight- line methods Classes of Assets and Depreciation Ranges Building and building equipment 2040 Land and leasehold improvements 1020 Machinery and equipment 213 Capitalized software 3-8 Depreciation Amortization** 3,158 2,939 2,774 2,832 ** $ in millions Appendix G Yearly dividend and share repurchase Figure 15 Stock repurchase (in shares) and dividends Stock Repurchaces and Dividends Pfizer 2011 2010 2009 2008 Stock Repurchaces* N/A N/A N/A N/A Dividends ($) 0. 8 0. 72 0. 8 1. 28 Merck 2011 2010 2009 2008 Stock Repurchaces* N/A N/A N/A N/A Dividends ($) 1. 56 1. 52 1. 52 1. 52 JJ 2011 2010 2009 2008 Stock Repurchaces* 39,741 45,090 37,114 100,9 70 Dividends ($) 2. 25 2. 11 1. 93 1. 795 Number of Shares (Thousands) Figure 16 Stock repurchase (in U. S. dollars) and dividends Stock Repurchaces and Dividends Pfizer 2011 2010 2009 2008 Stock Repurchaces* N/A N/A N/A N/A Dividends ($) 0. 8 0. 72 0. 8 1. 28 Merck 2011 2010 2009 2008 Stock Repurchaces* N/A N/A N/A N/A Dividends ($) 1. 56 1. 52 1. 52 1. 52 JJ 2011 2010 2009 2008 Stock Repurchaces* (2,525) (2,797) (2,130) (6,651) Dividends ($) 2. 25 2. 11 1. 93 1. 795 * $ in millions Appendix H Value Line reports

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Observing Toddlers Essay

Introduction There ar a number of places where tots could be observed unobtrusivelyat the park, the playground, the mall, and the daycare center. For the purpose of this study, however, I chose to go to the park and observe parents and their tots play together. This way, I could easily observe unobtrusively as people would take I was simply there to write or to write d profess my thoughts. A nonher benefit that the park has to offer is the lack of formal structures and kinds such as those found at daycare centers. At the park, parents and yearlings could interact easily and in a relax manner. That way, the true nature of the kind betwixt the parents and the toddlers will be easily observed and analyzed and the understanding of the interactions between parents and children will be better understood. This paper and then seeks to look at such a family relationship by presenting direct observations from families and toddlers that visit the park in our community. I had a small no tebook with me and it is where I wrote down my observations, as well as the converse that went on between the parents and the children. The toddlers that I observed were approximately between 16 to 30 months old and appeared to be pampered by care by their parents. One the toddlers give-up the ghost to an Asian-American racial stock while the other(a) one to an American family. Although the parents brought strollers with them, the toddlers were walking and at times carried by their parents.Both of the families of the toddlers seem to be pine to the middle class. Notably, the second toddler belongs to a stimulate without a father. Although the author could not exactly know whether she is a single parent or not, at least based on the observation at the park, the generate does not have any other company in visiting the park. Both toddlers appear to be enamored with their surroundings. They do notice the colors in the park and usually exclaim in delight when they see a butterfly o r a bird. Apparently, they are already starting to recognize some of the features of the environment and their understanding of what they are is already being formed in the minds of the young kids.Toddler 1The send-off toddler I observed is male. He displayed curiosity in his surroundings. While they were walking in the park, to the way where the family will sit down for an by and bynoon snack, the toddler was select up sticks and leaves on the ground. He raised them to his eyes and offered them to his parents. The mother accepted the offer from the toddler and said that it was a leaf. She explained further that the leaf grows on the branch, which the toddler dutifully picked up and offered to her mother again. When the mother pronounced leaf and branch, the toddler also spoke up and attempted to pronounce the same words.A child is very much curious and interested in his surroundings. As part of his cognitive breakment, he notices the shapes, colors, and assorted sensations and wonders he encounter in his area. still at such a young age, he is also being initiated into the process of socialization where he learns the views of his parents and of the larger society where he is located (Turner, 1991). The child, accord to Piagets theory actively uses his senses to explore his environment and learn about them. Through the use of his senses, he is able to discern relationships among the actions he take and the style of the objects that he is viewing (Turner, 1991).Both the component of nature and nurture are at work in this seemingly simple process that the child is way out through. He uses his eyes, his ears, his nose, and his whole body to discover the world and learn how it works. His efforts, because they are yet insufficient, are supplemented by his parents, more particularly by his mother, who tells him the names of objects and how they are being referred to in the world.Through the explanation of the mother about the nature of the relationship betw een leaves and branches, the child is then able to look at the relationship of different objects in his environment albeit in an incomplete fashion. The explanation of the mother regarding the relationship of leaves and branches whitethorn not be sufficient for the child to understand the relationship because most of the knowledge of a child advances through his actions and his interpretation about the consequences of the actions he make (Franz & White, 1985).Notably, the toddler was now engaging in eye-to-eye contact with his parents and occasionally asks them for what he wants. His father brought out a ball that the toddler apparently loved performing with. The father and the child started playing with the ballthey played catch, and sometimes they would race together to get the ball first. The toddler was delighted with such play with his father. Although this is the case, the child would also look at his mother and he asked her to pose and join them. This is consistent with the theory of Erikson, which holds that the childs relationship with his mother is perhaps the most important one during this stage of development (Franz & White, 1985).The child move to play with the ball and when he saw other children in the park, he also went to them and offered to play the ball with them. Apparently, toddler one has good socialization skills to the render that he can mingle with other kids even when his parents are around.This points to the good relationship that the child is enjoying with his parents. Both his parents encouraged him to play with other children and watched him with other kids. professedly enough, when the child has strong relationships with his parents, he tends to be more socially responsive and socially amiable. In accordance with Psychosocial theorists, the child is displaying good stirred up and social skills because his own relationship with his parents are also good and secure. Otherwise, he might become a recluse and refuse the company of people (Charlesworth, 2003).When Toddler one was playing ball with another child, there was an instance in which the other child managed to grab the ball more quickly than toddler one, so what he did was to forcibly claim the ball from his playmate and withheld it from the latter. Through this, the other child looked as if he was about to cry. It is at this moment that the mother of Toddler one intervened. The mother reasoned out firmly with the toddler in regards to sharing toys so that others would also learn how to share. The tone of the mother appeared to be negotiating instead of imposing. This display of pronouncement on the part of the mother is remarkable and shows the secure connection between her and the child (Charlesworth, 2003).Toddler TwoWhen I felt that I have sufficiently observed toddler one, I decided to turn my attention to another toddler playing with a dog not very far from the first toddler. The only companion of the toddler in the park is his mother and thei r Labrador. I had the impression, although this is difficult to verify, that the mother was a single parent.The mother was silently flavour after her child who was playing with the Labrador. Apart from the toy truck and the Frisbee that the child had, there were no other toys that the mother had for the child. The mother appeared to be preoccupied with her own thoughts.When toddler was not busy with his toy truck, he would play with the Frisbee and the dogs with the strength and the capability that he has. The dog seems to act as a guard to the toddler. He does not socialize with other kids very much and he appears content to play by himself. The toddler, it seems is spending most of the time by himself. Although at first glance, this may seem to be a display of autonomy, yet in closer examination of the child, he does not enjoy the benefits that interaction with other kids and with his parent brings. These mass will therefore bring forth negative consequences in the development o f the social skills of the child and he might find it difficult to relate with other people when he grows up (Keenan, 2002).When the child attempts to play farther from his mother, the latter would come after him and tell him not to move around too much. The mother actually uses her authority over the child to forbid him from going somewhere else. Apparently, the mother wants to keep the child in her sight most of the time. This kind of strength might breed negative incurings in the child and will contribute to the insecurity of their relationship.Since the relationship of the child with his mother is of utmost importance (Charlesworth, 2003), then his cognitive, emotional and social development will suffer as a consequence. The child also develops a kind of mistrust in the outside world and he will not view the outside world as a safe place. kinda, he might develop the attitude that he always inevitably his mother to look after him. Erikson warned against this over-protectivene ss of parents as it prohibits children to explore and become curious of their environment. Hence, instead of evolution self-confidence and self-esteem, toddler two will instead feel shame and doubt (Franz & White, 1985).Toddler two cried when his mother forbade him to wander into the park. When the child cried, the mother responded by being firmer and she almost shouted to toddler two to stop. Instead of stopping, however, toddler cried even louder and displayed tantrums. At this time, the mother punished toddler two by spanking him three times. After several minutes, toddler two halt crying and remained where he was instead. This display of authority may become inimical to the overall development of the child over the long run as the gap and the natural curiosity of the child will be dampened and what he will remember most will be the fear associated with the parents field of honor (Charlesworth, 2003).Toddler two recovered from the spanking after several minutes by turning his attention to the dog and his Frisbee. By distracting himself, he forgot about the misadventure and started to enjoy himself again. His mother, however, still issued a warning for him not to move out of her sight. According to Erikson, if the urge of the child to explore is removed, then the result would be a lower level of self-esteem on the part of the child (Franz & White, 1985).Toddler two is very much attached to her mother, however, he is not sufficiently developing autonomy. Through the reprimands and the stern warnings of his mother, he becomes dependent on his mother and unable to explore his environment and his surroundings. Over the course of time as he discovers the world further, he may not have sufficient curiosity and initiative to move away from the familiar and instead, he would keep in sight of whoever is looking after him.Conclusion Observing the two toddlers was a good experience for me. It was as if the concepts and theories discussed by Piaget and Erikson were coming to life. Indeed the role of the parents is very crucial in ensuring that a child receives the appropriate socialization and training even while he is young. The strength of the attachment of a child with his parents is very important for him to develop the necessary skills for socialization and in relating with others in his environment.If the relationship of a child with his parents is good as demonstrated by the first toddler I observed, then the child will greatly benefit from it. If, however, the nature of the relationship borders on the dysfunctional, then the socialization skills of the child will be negatively affected. As he grows up, he will have struggles in relating with different kinds of people in his environment. By observing toddlers, numerous lessons can be gleaned and the nature of the relationship between child and parents will be assessed. Accordingly, intervention strategies could be arrived at so that the child will not suffer needlessly. Furthermore, pa rents, and everyone dealing with children, should be sensitive to the different levels of development of the child as demonstrated by Piaget and Erikson. By doing so, perhaps the manner of bringing up of children will be better and over the long run, the society will become a better one because of the good rearing of the children.Reference Charlesworth, R. (2003). Understanding Child Development For Adults Who Work With Young Children. saucily York Thomson Delmar Learning.Franz, C. E. & White, K. M. (1985). Individuation and attachment in personality development Extending Eriksons theory. Journal of Personality, 53 (2), 224-256.Keenan, T. (2002). An Introduction to Child Development. London Sage Publications.Turner, P. J. (1991). Relations between Attachment, Gender, and mien with Peers in Preschool. Child Development, 62 (6), 1475-1488.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Literary Theory and Criticism, and Its Relevance Today Essay

literary Theory and Criticism and Its Relevance Today Literary criticism is primarily the evaluation of the importance of a particular work or body of work on such grounds as the personalized and/or cultural importance of the themes and the uses of language of a text the insights and impact of a text and the aesthetic creation (or, performance) of the text mainly as these argonas are seen to be reciprocally dependent, supportive or inflective.The word criticism has ordinary-use negative connotations, and to an extent that is right for literary criticism is part of he disciplining of dialogue largely and of what is considered literature in particular. One patrols the confines of good writing, admitting or excluding, determining what should be thought about a text, and why, what personal and cultural value should be placed on it. Judgments of significance are not simple, however. They contend that one consider what constitutes importance, what the personal and social importance of l iterature is what the significance of the aesthetic is.And they require that one interpret the text. As texts Judged to be of high literary significance tend to be marked by complexity and even ambiguity, and to yield divers(a) interpretations, Judgment may eventually require a theory of interpretation, or at least careful consideration to the question of what constitutes, guides, and legitimates interpretation. Theory is the route of reason what the character of literature is, what functions it has, what the relation of text is to author, to reader, to language, to society, to history. It is not Judgment alone understanding of the frames of Judgment.Literary Theory is part of a prevalent movement in the culture which has affected a number of disciplines, occasioning similar disputes in some, a movement which has explored and elucidated the complexities of meaning, textuality and understanding. Literary Theory is not a single venture but a set of interrelated concepts and practic es most significantly deconstruction, post-Althusserian ideological or political criticism, post-Lacanian psychoanalytic criticism, New Historicist or cultural criticism, some reader-response criticism and oftentimes feminist criticism.The aim of this essay is to identify the issues that ground these contemporary literary theories. There have always been literary theories about how literature works, what connotation is, what it is to be an author and so forth. The essential interpretive practices in force and in power in the academy which are being challenged by Theory were themselves ground-breaking, theoretic practices which became the norm.The two main crucial practices in the mid portion of the century have been the formalist tradition, or New Criticism, which sees a text as a omparatively self-enclosed meaning-production system which develops gigantic signifying power through its formal properties and through its conflicts, ambiguities and complexities, and the Arnoldian hu manist tradition exemplified most clearly in the work of F. R. Leavis and his followers, which concentrates evaluatively on the cleverness of the author to represent moral experience concretely and engagingly. Many readers have in practice combined the principles and methodologies of these

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Art and book making Essay

Books are integral part of everyones life. There are different kinds of books and each has its own purpose and meaning. near books are intend for learning while others are for entertainment purposes and for self-expression on the part of the author. Every book is like a treasure box that is full of valuable things. Most of the time, books are used for academic purposes. Without books, it would be really hard for students to learn and for teachers to prepare their lessons. Books serve as a guide and basis for learning.It would be unthinkable for present generations to learn about histories of different civilization and time and other knowledge without books. Others also find entertainment by reading books such as story and poetry books. Books also expresses the thoughts, emotions and view of the writer. It can also be said that the machines, equipments and technologies that we are experiencing in the present time is because of the existence of books that recorded more dis bounce ba ckies and studies done in the past.Through these studies, we had been able to make life easier and better in meeting the needs of the people and in doing things. Yet, today it can be said that the importance that we give to books are declining also because of the advancement of technology. However, it is undeniable that books still plays an integral part for learning and development not only in terms of technology yet in personal growth as easily. Due to the great importance and the role that books play in our society, it is also principal(prenominal) to pay attention to the book fashioning process.Making a book is not an easy problem and requires a lot of work, time and as well as safe ideas. It is also significant to consider book fashioning as a form of art, a work of art. Aesthetic is also a consideration in beau monde to be able to create a high quality book that is able to serve its purpose whether it is for educational or entertainment purpose. The very cover of the books requires artistic ideas. It is important to make a wide impression to the reader. Definitely a reader will choose a book with an attractive cover. It is an important factor for the readers to get interested in the book from the beginning.There is no expression a book will be effective if it is not read and readers will think twice before reading a book with a dull cover. For this reason, most story books go through a very colorful cover in order to attract readers especially kids who are funned of reading stories and seeing beautiful pictures. According to James A. Cox, editor-in-chief of midwestern United States Book Review, the cover is the part of the book that will attract distributors, booksellers, costumers, librarians and reviewers to pick up the book, allotting time opening it and casting eye tracks on the interior of the book. non only colorful and attractive covers are needed in coming up with a high quality book but the message of the cover as well. This is not a n easy task and requires good artistic ability. Although aesthetic is an important part, the main text and body of the book is still the main important part that readers are searching. A cover moldiness give a hint on what the book is all about that is why titles are ordinarily a part of the cover. The title itself requires creativity. A book needs a catchy title for it to gain the interest of the reader.The title can also recount the reader whether the book is worthy to be read and worthy of their time, money and effort. The main body of the book also requires creativity and art. You dont bonny write anything you want in making a book. It essential be organized and put in a creative manner in order to maximize its effectiveness. Illustrations and others must be included because it is easier to remember and understand. Making an illustration regarding the important things and information that you want to impart is also a hard task that requires creativity and artistic ability.An y information given and emphasize by the writer will be greatly appreciated if the reader will be able to grasp the idea. Making the body of a book does not only require a good writing skills but the writer must also think of better ways on how to improve the body for the readers. For this reason, most scholarly books include tables, graphs and other representations for better understanding. Thus, book writing must also be considered as a form of art that requires creativity and artistic design. Artistic ability is really needed in book making especially in making story or book of poems.Making poem is not as easy as it looks. The purpose is not scarcely to entertain but as well as for the writer to express himself/herself in a creative manner. Every part of a book requires good artistic ability in order to be effective and to serve its purpose. The cover needs to be attractive for the readers to take time looking at what the book is all about. The body must also be a work of art fo r the readers to be satisfied with what they have read. Book making is a form of art and art cannot be separated from book making.Without art, it would be impossible to come up with a high quality, effective and informative book. creativeness and artistic design is a great factor to gain and satisfy the readers. To satisfy the readers is not just beneficial on the part of the reader but for the writer as well. By doing so, the writer will gain the trust of the readers and will be able to build a good reputation. Thus, the possibility of having readers of his or her future works increases because of the reputation that he or she was able to build by meeting the expectations of costumers or readers.The greatest challenge in book making is not the information that is to be included in the book but rather how you can come up with a book that can be considered as a work of art from the cover and to the whole text. A book is not just read, it must be appreciated and the only way to do so is to consider book making as an art that must be appreciated for the contents and as well as for the esthetics and artistry of the book in general. An effective and successful writer is definitely a creative artist.References Cox, J. ,A. (No date). The importance of book covers. Retreived January 10, 2008 from http//www. midwestbookreview. com/bookbiz/advice/coverart. htm Hunter, L. (2002). The importance of making a good impression. Retrieved January 10, 2008 from http//www. berkeley. edu/news/berkeleyan/2002/11/13_bookm. html Sowin, J. (15, April, 2007). The importance of books. Retreived January 10, 2008 from http//www. fireandknowledge. org/archives/2007/04/15/the-importance-of-books-l amott/.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Clinical Manifestation of HIV Infection Essay

There are lots of diseases that are transmittable and self-destructive to human lives but until today the HIV still leading the most dangerous human life taker. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) destroys the immune systems helper T cells, the loss of which causes AIDS. The person infected c anyed as HIV convinced(p) that shows by test for antibodies to HIV in the bloodstream to be infected with HIV.But how you will know a person if she/he is infected. What are the manifestations you potful observe? How can this be applied scientifically based knowledge to nursing practice? What knowledge do you get in reading all these articles? In the next paragraph the answers to the question are discuss step-by-step.Clinical ManifestationThe incubation period of a few weeks after exposure to HIV, most infected individuals present with an acute flue-like illness. The clinical indications of HIV infection were first descried in 1985 as an illness resembling infectious mononucleosis. The most co mmon symptoms are feverishness, maculopopular rash, ad-lib ulcers, lymphaenopathy, arthralgia, pharyngitis, malaise, weight loss, aseptic meningitis and myalgia.In one study, fever (80%) and malaise (68%) had the highest sensitivity for clinical diagnosis of HIV infection, whereas loss of weight (86%) and oral ulcers (85%) had the highest specificity. In the study, the symptoms of fever and rash followed by oral ulcers and pharyngitis had the highest positive pr5edictivevalue for diagnosis of HIV infection. In another study, fever, rash myalgia, arthritis and night sweats were the best predictors for HIV infection. The symptom phase of HIV infection lasts between 7-10 days, and archaicly longer than 14 days.The nonspecific nature of the symptoms posses a great challenge to the clinician and underlines the importance of a tiny history of exposure. (Altfeld & Walker).Another manifestation is Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) is a chronic and rare dermatosis that is considered to be a variant of leucotoclastic vaculitis. The clinical manifestations are papules, plaques or nodules, which vary in people of colour from reddish to purple, light brown and sometimes yellowish.The lesions are persistent and symmetrically distributed on extensors surfaces, particularly in the joints of the extremities. Such patients may presents arthralgia. The itchiness and pains, with rare systemic involvement were also observed (Medical Journal 2005).Immune thrombocytopenic purpura may be the sole clinical manifestation of HIV infection. Results of the treatment of 6 patients spontaneous bleeding due to severe thrombocytopenia are presented. In all patients immune thrombocytopenic purpura was the only clinical manifestation of HIV infection. 4 of them were intravenous narcotic addicts, and the other two patients did not belong to high-risk groups (Elizovic, Jevtovic &Rolovic 1989).Peripheral Facial paralysis as a manifestation of HIV Infection, cardinal patients had typical Bell s palsy while one had a facialdiplegia. CD4 cell counts were above 100 cells/mm3 in all cases. A review of literary productions confirmed that peripheral facial nerve palsy could occur at any stage of HIV infection and in various clinical contexts. It is suggested that openhanded patients presenting with peripheral facial paralysis should be counseled, and screened for HIV (Annals AF Med 2002 1(1) 128-30).

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Explain the difference between rule

Explain the difference between rule, act and preference utilitarianism (25 marks) Utilitarianism is the ethical theory behind Justifying an action for existence for the greater good. This is a teleological theory because it looks at the consequences of an action. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory. There are three types of utilitarianism figure out, Rule and Preference. Jeremy Bentham began the Utilitarianism theory. Utilitarianism is a hedonistic theory because it is establish on recreation and happiness. Each utilitarian has a divers(prenominal) theory of Utilitarianism and this will be explained in my essay.First there was Jeremy Bentham the one to think of the Utilitarianism theory. Bentham was an act Utilitarian. Bentham was interested in the dogma of utility, this is the theory of public utility comp whatever that suggests that an action is right if it brings the greatest happiness for the greatest number. He developed his ethical system based on ancient hedonism, which perused physiological pleasure and avoided physical pain. Bentham believed that a clean act is one that maximises pleasure and minimises pain. From this Jeremy Bentham invented something called the hedonic calculus this was his way of measuring the good and bad of an action.Bentham state the principle of utility aims to promote happiness, which is the imperative ethical value An act is right if it delivers more pleasure than pain and wrong if it brings about more pain than pleasure. To help people choose what would throw the best possible consequence, Bentham provided a way of measuring it. This is the hedonic calculus. There are seven elements the intensity of the pleasure the duration of the pleasure the certainty of the pleasure the remoteness of the pleasure the chance of succession of pleasures the purity of the pleasure and lastly he extent of the pleasure.Bentham invented this to help people weigh up and measure how more pleasure an action will produce. Bentham w as interested in the greatest good for the greatest number and therefore his theory is quantitative. Benthams view is described as identification number Utilitarianism. Act Utilitarianism is Eudemonistic because actions are based on the happiness it brings Consequentialist because the consequences an action will bring about and also Act Utilitarianism is measurable (by the hedonic calculus) and also quantitative because its based on the greatest umber.Act Utilitarianism is teleological because it aims to maximise the pleasure of the majority and has an end aim. Act Utilitarianism is also relative due to the fact that there is no whimsey of absolute right or wrong. On the other hand, Stuart manufacturing plant didnt agree with Benthams Act Utilitarianism. Mill stressed that happiness was more important than pleasure. Mill said The Greatest promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. Here Mill is suggesting that happiness is the importance when looking at a moral action. Something that Mill also criticised about Benthams view was the quantitative emphasis.Mill thought that actions should be measured in a qualitative way instead of quantitative way. Mill was interested in the quality of the pleasure. Mill looked at intellectual pleasures such as reading poetry and not pleasures such as eating or having sex. To add, Mill thought about the difference between animal pleasure and human pleasure. He said It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied Furthermore, Mill suggested that in order to derive the principle of the greatest appiness for the greatest number we should have a principle of universality.Mill believed that we need moral rules to produce social order and Justice these rules should be followed universally. Mill was therefore seen as a Rule Utilitarian. Rule Utilitarianism is Consequentialist as is Act Utilitarianism Rule Utilitarianism is Universalistic and also qualitative. Rule Utilitarianism is deontological due to the fact that rules take priority. It is also relative because actions are based on the maximisation of pleasure for a particular society where the rules are used.Contrasting to Act and Rule Utilitarianism there is Preference Utilitarianism this is the most recent form of Utilitarianism. R. M. Hare, ray of light Singer and Richard Brandt all have different views though they are all Preference Utilitarianists. Preference Utilitarians Judge moral actions according to whether they fit in with the preferences of the individuals involved. R. M Hares approach argues that when making the decision on whether an action is right or wrong we must consider our own preferences and those of others. Hare said equal preferences count equally, whatever their content.One problem is that sometimes peoples preferences whitethorn clash therefore Hare suggested that we should stand in someone elses shoes and try to imagine what they would prefer. Hare thinks that people should treat other with impartiality and he argues for universalisability. Peter Singer was also a Preference Utilitarian though he suggests that we should take the viewpoint of an impartial spectator. Singer said our own preferences cannot count any more than the preferences of others and so, in acting morally, we should take account of all the people affected by our actions.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Words of Encouragement

Patrick Draughn Words of Encouragment From the outgoing class of 2012 to the incoming class of 2013 we would like to say congratulations to you all, you made it. It has been a long and the finish line is gradually approaching. This upcoming year will be the best and worst quantify s of your high give instruction experience. There will be times when you cant wait to get to school to surface off your new fishing rig or to attend radicalcoming week. There will to a fault be times where school is just not where you want to be today and your body will go but your mind stays at home.These times will come and these times will go but the unrivalled thing you must immortalize is not to go out why you come to school. Do not forget why you are attending high school. Dont forget active the test on Monday because you were out with your friends this weekend and didnt feel like studying. Dont forget about the paper due next week because you were too busy deciding what to get Brittany or bobby something for their birthday. Dont be late to class because you couldnt decide what to wear with your fresh outfit or what accessories will match your dress.No this is not the time to slack off now is not the time to conduct the infamous virus known as ageditis. Now is the time to focus on your studies, fleet your way through the path to graduation, and if you decide start figuring out what college you would like to attend if you oasist clear-cut already. To the prospective college students now is definitely not the time to get behind on your studies but to get a study designing started. Trust me it will be a necessity. I know there will be times where you feel like giving up and wanting to quit.Ive been there, Ive been up all night typing papers and having to get up at the pick of dawn the next morning for class. Ive been beaten up in practice and having to come home to chores, siblings, and homework. I had the job where you had to work on weekends and homework was due Mondays instead of Wednesdays. I never tell the avenue to graduation was easy but I promise it will be worth it, and later that road ends many more roads will begin to form. Its always sage to plan your next destination and whether it may be college, military, workforce, or etc. make sure youre qualification the right decision for yourself and no one else.You take hold control of your own destiny. I remember my senior year I was commander of the entire ROTC at my high school, captain of two sports teams, and I also had a job. Although there were times when giving up felt like the easiest thing to do I had to sit back and think was it the RIGHT thing to do. I received many rewards honor roll, medals, raze a state championship ring so its say to say I have accomplished many things throughout my high school experience but my biggest achievement was walking crosswise that stage looking my principal in his face and shaking his hand while he gave me my diploma.I knew that I was fi nally finished everything was complete. I remember sitting down with my grandmother who is is a big govern on my life. We sat down and talked about college she told me how no one in our family has ever been to college and if I decided to go id be the very first. That was more than enough motivation for me to choose the right path for me so hopefully the right path for you students will be easy as well. In choosing your path I want you to remember one thing that my grandmother always told me.My grandmother was a very wise woman and although we had many conversations I never remember them all but I do remember that specific conversation over the rest because she told me something that has been engraved in my mind ever since that night. She said great deal can take a lot of things from you money, cars, clothes, homes, even your life but theres one thing no one will never be able to take from you and thats your education. So to the upcoming senior class of 2013 I say good luck congrat ulations and may your road or path guide you to your destiny.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Individualism vs Conformity

Individualism vs. treaty The lives of human beings are touch around the thin blue farm animal that separates conformity and individuality. Many times one(a) is confused and rushed, and this line is drawn too short or too long, thus being too much of a conformist or an individual. The individual, in the American conception, is an independent and inventive agent, relatively autonomous and mor exclusivelyy trustworthy to him or herself.A widespread of specific propositions concerning human nature was derived from this ethnocentric premise. While these cultural propositions are nevertheless maintained, at least on the ideal level, in reality a considerable degree of habituation and conformity has developed. Conformity is, in a sense, the remedy for isolation. In the opinion of many a(prenominal) Americans, this trend threatens standards of individuation by personal property and product, decisions amongst American youth, and conformity as a whole.First and foremost since the begi nning of time, work force and women were ideally allowed to voice disagreement with the decisions and practices of the authorities, they were expected to conduct the occupation of their preference and be self-supporting, and encouraged to copy their own convictions and beliefs. A number of regulations have been introduced, presumably guaranteeing security and consistency of economic well-being for all Americans these include, for example, Social Security, Medicare, and other similar measures.However, claims are made that freedom is no longer clearly bind to a social system of private property and passive government. Aside from human property at that place is human production. In the industrial realm, modern technology and its efficiency have resulted in establishing norms and standards for production as well as consumption. Efficiency and expediency has ever so been of fascination to outside observers. In the course of this exploitation industrial efficiency and expediency, i ndividualistic and creative participation in the production process has become greatly reduced for the vast bulk of employees.There is pull down a question whether the product itself meets standards of individuality and uniqueness, since it has been mass-produced and is knowing to suit the tastes of thousands of people. Secondly, American youth, on one hand, are brought up in the knowledge of American history, which includes many well-known and glorified examples of individualism and are encouraged to practice this truly American trait. On the other hand, however, American youth are constantly challenged to conform to national and patriotic standards requiring high degrees of conformity to majority opinion.There is a widespread public opinion which perceives an expression of independent individual thinking and believing and as subversive and un-American conduct. One is inclined to conclude that the original individualism is now at war with a strong emphasis on conformity. It appe ars then that at that place is a serious version between the American ideal of rugged individualism and its actual implementation. A teenager has to learn conservatively that this blueprint for American individualism is not generalizable and that there are definite areas of limitations and prohibitions.The fact of non-generalizability destroys the simplicity and predictability of always responding in identical or similar ways, thereby complicating the learning process and rendering the behavioral blueprint. Conformity is some sort of a psychological shelter. If one does not know what to do and are scared, it is immanent to follow the steps of others so that eventually one can find a group to collide with shelter in. Conformity is essential to life. Humans, being complex animals, live in a society that functions as a whole.If there is a mistake, the entire system may crumble. So, they are obligated to pay taxes and love the law so that they can stay together as a whole. Confor mity is perfectly natural. Everyone naturally wants to belong to something bigger. They naturally want to be accepted by others. However, in modern terms this borrowing can only be obtained by going further than natural conformity and stepping into popular conformity. At that certain stage Americans tend to follow the same trends in style and personal taste, whether it is music, movies, or even morals.In conclusion, individuality, like conformity, is essential to life even though modern society may not prize its value. At one point Americans want to be different from all the rest in one way or another. So one might dress a bit differently and choose to do things that intrigue one another. And, for once, individuals might form our opinions based on what they really feel. However, sooner or later Americans are forced to curb their spontaneous desires so that society does not label everyone as eccentric or weird.Modern life is confusing, so sometimes the vision is blurred and the ch oices, made in the center of confusion, may force people in extreme directions of either conformity or individuality. Many Americans may follow everyone in everything they do, or may so much of an individual that they become somewhat of a hermit. Yet the trends that threaten standards of individualism by personal property and product, decisions amongst American youth, and conformity as a whole may show a sign of weakness. However, conformity may dominate the lives of Americans, but there is always the chance to make a mark, to become more of an individual than a clone.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Group week

Cell phones atomic number 18 not only for personal use but they rouse come in handy for transmission line purposes as well. There are many uses for cell phones in a business setting internet, video calling testing and ability to use applications. With a cellular phone there genuinelyly is no reason that you cannot be not accessible to your company. Many companies are now allowing cell phones in their businesses. But are there times that cell phones can be a hindrance for a many as well.There is a lot of new technology on cell phones, but some believe that it can be more of a negative encounter than a positive one. In a retail setting cell phones can lead to poorly customer service or can impede on customers privacy if employees are using their photographic camera features. Cellular phones can also lead to employees to be unproductive. Microbiological Microbiological can be used as real time communication and to help the company keep up with any complaints or to see what is ne cessary to improve in their company.Microbiological is a way for people to tell about their day in stochastic posts, this could help a company with profiting. Microbiological is what people do when they are on Faceable or other mixer networking sights. Microbiological is a shorter version of regular blobbing and can be used to promote business and have a more personal relationship with their customers. Cloud Computing Cloud computing is using a network of remote servers hosted on the internet to store, manage, and process data instead of storing the information on a combust server or personal computer.Cloud computing is good for business and can help reduce the security measure costs because when you store things within the company, the company can control who sees the information. Cloud computing is also a very easy way for employees to find and share information. Webzines Webzines are popular when communicating in the business world. In the past companies were dependent on th em for group training. This can be used throughout the awkward to help encourage people to get their points across.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Hallowed Ground – Creative Writing

bingle damp morning in the spring of 1951, an elderly woman sit down in her drawing room, and stared bug discover of the Edwardian rescindow, stretching from the floor to the ceiling. The velvet green curtains fluttered splendidly against a draft. This is her place of easement, were she chose to lead the rest of her life peacefully. She gazed into her garden. Her drawing room was vacant when compared with the beauty of nature. The walls were lined with great masterpieces, her tables decorated with beautiful and grand Ming vases. She sat upright against the silk tapestry cushions of the chair. She loved the outdoors, and foreverlastingly felt self-conscious with the four walls enclosing her, no matter how beautifully they were decorated. She always adored her garden, the white and pink roses in her numerous and perfectly arranged, centrosymmetric beds.The garden had limestone stairs, and she peered out of the window, down the grey-white steps, to a garden that stretched to the horizon. The grass was a pure deep green. And in the centre, a pond, stretching horizontally from one end of the garden to the other, the only means of crossing was an emeritus bridge of pale wood with small engravings of dragons lining its railings. She watched the golden red carp glitter in the soft morning sun under the waters surface. Her garden shone with pink and white blossoms. The flowers, at this time of year were mainly spring pansies, daffodils and bluebells, dripping with morning dew.The rose bushes stretched all the way across the left side of the brick wall, ruining its foundations. She remembered old age, spreading through her bole like the flower, ruining her strength. Her once able body was frail. Time was running out the hourglass had tipped.She leant forward to the man across the table, sipping his tea and waiting patiently for a reply. She felt his harsh gaze in her eyes.So, Miss Amanda Daley, he began, are you considering ever using our run again, perh aps writing a nonher book or novel? I hope you know, and of course you do, creation a lady of worth, that our services are at the best of prices and of the highest quality. His words remained unanswered, and she carried on staring out of the window. His pinstripe suit and unmarked suede seat were intimidating, and clearly he was a wealthy man, ignorant to suffering.She was uncomfortable in his company, and like a small child, looked at the floor. And notwithstanding, she hated silence, the social void, representing her lack of communal knowledge, and tattle could spread about her past. She sat with her back erect, causing her pain. And yet, she felt that etiquette overcame physical pain, as her father had always taught her. Her back throbbed. She was indifferent to her publication anyhow, since she grew increasingly ill, relief succumbed to etiquette. Her back relaxed. And, as she suspected, she felt a sort of paternal betrayal. Finally, she brought herself to mutter a few word s, Yes, thank you, I know. I shall send a wire when necessary. My book will be finished in about three weeks. Come to collect the written document when I call.She led him to the front door, where he stepped into his automobile. Being a lady of worth- these words irritated her, hybridise around in her head, moreover she kept quiet down and showed no discontent. His car vanished through the drive, and she saw no point in waving him off. She had work to do.She was to begin her story. She sat in the drawing room, asked the maid to scram her a blanket and hot tea, and sat at the oak tree table near another window. She stared at her aged hands and wrinkled face in the reflection of her silver teapot, each line representing a time in her life, and she also noticed her hollow eyes. The blue veins emerged on her fingers, as if her condition had erect appeared over iniquity. But alas, this was not so. They did not just emerge, but the veins remained no medicine could possibly cure it. Sh e had but not cared before. There were more important things to handle previously age was a meagre cyclorama amongst her losses. She sat back, and allowed the painful memories to enter her mind.(2)Her mother, whom she adored with all her heart, would tell her stories when she sat up in bed, and listened with the equivalent intent, even though the stories were often alike. Once her mother had left, and she had said her prayer, she looked out of her window to the star-studded sky, against the black woodworking plane of infinity, and rested against it, was the chalky moon. She omit her eyes. At sunrise, she saw her father leaving the brook, as usual. He shut the door with the same pessimism. His job was tedious, though he was too arrogant with false masculinity to ever admit it. He was well educated, well dressed, well paid and an owner of a leading company. He paid for servants to look after her family, even though her mother saw it as an intrusion of privacy.The kinsperson was situated on the edge of the sea cliffs, and the path following down to the ocean was lined with serrate rocks, sharp enough to cut. An hour later she tore her shoe on the steep path when paseo down to the bay. As she stared deep into the horizon, she wondered what was beyond it. The sea lapped at her bare feet and she felt a slight spiritual familiarity with her surroundings, an eternal bonding of the vast and treacherous sea with her small, trusting heart. The sea sang into her ears, the wind caressed her skin and the sea appeared to be studded with thousands of diamonds against a turquoise backdrop. The sun blazed and her skin shone pink.She returned to a noneffervescent house.Mother, she called, looking uncertain, bracing herself. A splutter came from upstairs, and the servants were nowhere to be seen. She saw her mother access down the stairs.The reply was not as dire as she had expected or it was and she simply did not represent.Annabella, her mother said. She spoke in a quiet tone, one that would have been soothing if it were not for the overwhelming fear that she could sense in her mothers eyes and expression. Your father has been injured at his factory. Now, I dont expect you to understand this but we are treading on thin ice. We may be in slight financial trouble, but there is no reason to worry. But there was. Annabella could sense it.What was a pretty Victorian house was now wrought with depression. Annabella stopped walking down the beach, and fell asleep in tears. The month later, she was roused by Victoria, her maid, and was told to dress. She met her mother at the breakfast table. Her beautiful green eyes were now veiled with tears, her curled redheaded hair was now matted and greasy. She managed to force out the words, but Annabella knew exactly what she was about to hear. The house was speechless again, no coughing, no cries and no shouts. She whimpered and tensed herself. All she heard was, Hes gone. No sounds from her father, no remi nders of the infected wound. She did not cry. She was grieving ever since he was hurt, and she knew it.Her father had died after a wild fever and her family suffered in surly grief, his death believed to have been caused by the infected wound. Once she understood the cruel consequences of her fathers death a developing anger came over her, like a flame on oil. Why has he left us? she asked herself. He had not taken any care no money was ever left miss for the pittance that remained after debts and taxes. There was no longer any financial help. He left my mother in hysterical tears, a sorry and disconcerting spectacle to their children.(3)Even though it was many years since her fathers funeral, she remembered the light oak coffin in which her fathers body rested comfortably against a white silk tapestry. She remembered the echoing aisle sounds of shoes against the limestone floor, her silent mother and wailing brother, still young and too small to understand.During the final stage s of his life, he had gravid incredibly weak and thin. Two dark pits surrounded his eyes and the red and brown liquid seep from his mouth. Her mother was always kneeling at his bedside with a damp cloth in order to calm the fever. The injury in his chest had become infected, and his whole chest was swollen, and his temperature soared. He often vomited. He cried during the night and woke up the house. Her mother never allowed servants to look after him, and she stayed by him, feeling that it was her responsibility. The memories of her father stayed with Annabella for the rest of her life, traumatising her, and yet provided her with an inner strength and understanding of the temporality of life.Unable to hold her pen any longer Annabella sat back, shut her eyes and waited till she had the enthusiasm to start the next chapter. The book, rather than being a fire of the emotional torments, became a burden of pain.

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Child Abuse in Vietnam

Banking Academy of Vietnam International Training Program (ITP) -o0o- CHILD ABUSE IN VIETNAM Course entitleAcademic writing Advisor Student Class Hanoi, July 2012 1 ABTRACT In more countries, baby birdren atomic number 18 considered as the future of nation and should be provided with the best things, best condition for the development and nutrition. This is quite true and in fact, in developed countries such as the United States of America, France, Britain, Austria, etc. , churlren ar always ranked as the highest priority more than nearly new(prenominal) mickle.As the future of country, they must be hold deargond far remote from force bug out, infringement and exploitation. However, in contrast to developed countries, pip-squeakren in developing countries atomic number 18 not provided with good conditions and sometimes they ar affected from something called demoralize. Vietnam is alike one of those countries suffering from this situation. So what is the real situa tion, causes and which solutions could best deal with that difficulty are what this paper will look into. Moreover, through it is expected that through the research the sense of mess regarding electric razorren could be much improved.Key words child shout, violence, infringement, exploitation, neglect, sensual abuse, emotional abuse. CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1. Research background In Viet Nam, child abuse is a very hot topic and attracts a lot of attention from public. As a developing country, children in Vietnam are not provided with good condition and sometimes they are in addition considered as a kind of labor force. That could be happened everywhere from the city, mountainous areas, or countryside. 2. Research draw a bead on This research will identify the situation of child abuse in Vietnam and their causes, consequences as well as relevant solutions.Through it, reader whitethorn let better understanding of the situation and further contri thate to the barroom of chil d abuse, at least in their family. 3. Definition of the key basis In this research, key terms are used and understood as follows sister abuse child abuse or insult constitutes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential trauma to the childs health, survival, development or dignity in the stage setting of a kind of responsibility, trust or power. Child neglect Neglect is the adversity to provide for the development of the child in all spheres health, tuition, emotional development, nutrition, shelter, and rock-steady living conditions, in the context of resources reasonably available to the family or caretakers and causes or has a high chance of ca employ harm to the childs health or physical, psychological, spiritual, moral or social development.This includes the failure to properly supervise and protect children from harm as much as is feasible Phy sical abuse Physical abuse of a child is that which results in actual or potential physical harm from an interaction or lack of an interaction, which is reasonably within the control of a parent or mortal in a position of responsibility, power or trust. on that point may be a angiotensin-converting enzyme or repeated incidents. Emotional abuse Emotional abuse includes the failure to provide a developmentally appropriate, supportive environment, including the availability of a primary attachment figure, so that the child can develop a stable and full range of emotional and social competencies commensurate with her or his personal potentials and in the context of the society in which the child dwells. There may also be acts towards the child that cause or have a high probability of causing harm to the childs health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.These acts must be reasonably within the control of the parent or person in a relationship of responsibility, trust or power. Acts include restriction of movement, patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, threatening, scaring, discriminating, ridiculing or other non-physical forms of hostile or rejecting treatment. Sexual abuse Child sexual abuse is the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give certain consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violate the laws or social taboos of society.Child sexual abuse is evidenced by this activity between a child and an enceinte or another child who by age or development is in a relationship of responsibility, trust or power, the activity being intended to gratify or satisfy the needs of the other person. This may include but is not limited to ? The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity ? The exploitative use of child in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices ? The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials. using Commercial or other exploitation of a child refers to use of the child in reverse or other activities for the benefit of others. This includes, but is not limited to, child labor and child prostitution. These activities are to the detriment of the childs physical or mental health, gentility, or spiritual, moral or social-emotional development. (Source military man Heal Organization) 4. Significance of the research As children will be the people who make up the future, when they are not provided with good conditions, that could lead to serious consequences to family and society.The situation will worse when they are do by, the research, therefore, is aiming at hear out the root causes, identify the possible consequences and solution. It can help readers to better understand the problem and have right behaviors such as helping other children, having better behaviors to children. The best results could be raising awareness of the whole society and decreasing the child abuse in Vietnam. 5. Methodology In this research, the following methods are used Data collection from books, magazines, internet to get statistics, data and general understanding of child abuse in Vietnam as well as to survey other researches in this topic and identify which aspects are yet missed. Questionnaires have been distributed to 100 of people of over 20 age old to collect their discernment and understanding well-nigh child abuse as well as to find some suggested solutions. Procedures At first, detective finds books, magazines and all sources of information related to child abuse to get statistics, data about the problem.From this activity, researcher has determine what is child abuse, its consequences, and the existing situation. Further more, it can help researcher to determine which aspect is gloss over missed and needed to be studied more. After that, questionnaires are developed and distribute to 100 people from the age of 20 to identify their understanding about child abuse and also to collect some suggestions for the solutions. The questionnaires provides the researcher with practical point of view to compare with those written in book or magazines. CHAPTER II. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 1. moorage of Child Abuse in VietnamFor children, family is the most solid and quiet shelter in their early years. To stick up with their parents and relatives and enjoy love as well as physical and mental care are the inalienable rights of every child. However, in fact, there are many children in Vietnam, who cant live like that. Even though Vietnam is one of the first members of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child, the situation of children affected by violence still occurs at serious level. It has actually become an anxiety for both(prenominal) society and family and does occur with not only if girls but also boys.For our country, the situation of violence against children o r child abuse in recent years tends to increase in both number and extent. Here are some statistics on the media From 2008-2009, there were 5956 cases of child abuse (an average of 3,000 cases a year), over 100 child murders and 50 kidnappings, child trafficking were detected and processed. many an(prenominal) children suffered from violence from their parents, family members, instructors, employers and the persons responsible for foster care. (em tim them mot so dan chung, so lieu ve lam dung tre em o Vietnam nhe) 2. CausesThrough collection of information and conduct of questionnaires, the following causes of the child abuse in Vietnam has been identified Poverty Insufficient legal system Inappropriate teaching method Family break (em tim them mot so nguyen nhan nua nhe) Two main reasons are the same thing repeated -First, The law is not sufficient deterrent. -Second, scorn the law, but we do not comply in. Article 110 of the Penal Code on charges of straining other people who have defined cruelty with an audience of dependent children shall be subject to warning, non-custodial unsnarl for one year to three years.This is the sentence too light. While child abuse cases are frequently repeated in a long time that children not only affected physically but also mentally affected very badly, sometimes those that haunt the children for life. At school, the punishment by using whips from customs, cultural traditions from the previous generation to the Trade for the whip, to jump. Under the old way of thinking of Vietnam, the teacher is very powerful, the idea that parents should be the new take. So, should the majority support him, his teacher spanking children as a punishment to help them know the next time the error does not recur again.In addition to the teacher, the teacher with the indifference of pedagogy, the lack of knowledge of social, legal, psychological These factors led to the application of whips or insulting words to physical and spiritual children. At home, along with the traditional view Trade for whip, to jump, the parents reported that the use of whips children is their right, mostly due to the education of children, with family present from 1 to 2 children, the parents are expecting children, investing heavily in education leading to heavy pressure with the children, using whips to force the children to achieve results as your parents want.Besides, there are many different reasons for parents to use whips for children, husband and wife hit me angry, angry with her husband also hit me, hit me daughter in response to her husband, son in law does not by his mother and wife also brought me out to battle in addition, a form of violence in the family, it is the excessive subscribe to for their age and development of children and with words or actions that cause children to be mental damage, outraged, abandoned, rejected love . There are also many cases of children being beaten by parents own childhood by their par ents also lead to violence so traumatic and they also teach children to use violence. The boys live in family violence, take or mother type . Long days also affected the character of father . (nhung ly do em neu o day chua thuyet phuc, em tim lai nhe) 2. Consequences (tim lai cac hau qua, anh huong cua child abuse, phai ro rang theo tung muc vi du nhu anh huong len gia dinh, anh huong len xa hoi, anh huong len giao duc, anh huong den tinh mang cua tre em, vv.. Violence against children is traumatic for children in psychiatric severity. The psychological research on children indicates that children are not cared for and caring will be taught psychological deviations unruly freedom, prefer to use violence. The boys live in family violence, father or mother type Long days also affected the character of father. Many children are growing up and harsh, rude, make up cruel to women like father or the child is more violence against women published. aking crime when enticeme. For girls, the most practically aloof, afraid of men, afraid of marriage, illness self-esteem, depression, panic neurological that is, the girls would be difficult to integrate with the community than the boys. both(prenominal) boys and girls often witnessed violence in the family, make sure the child is likely to have violence, poor education, may be arising negative intentions, and psychological operations are passive, there be prone to headaches, stomach painful sensation and neuralgia style schizophrenia. Vulnerable age group is 5-10 years old Domestic violence causes mental trauma in children, injuries that can last a lifetime, causing deep wounds in the minds of children . 3. Solutions The cases sexually abused children, domestic violence recently has once again sounding bells, there should be drastic measures to protect children. Along with that, in the current situation, policy system, legal rampart, child care need to be complete quickly. Crimes against the immediate future, es pecially violence against children is to be heard with strict penalty, more closely.Need to build inter-sectoral coordination mechanisms at both central and unified basis in the detection, treatment, intervention, help abused children, domestic violence. Propaganda and dissemination of policies and laws of the State and measures to hold open and combat violence against children should be taken regularly to the executive committee, government, communities, schools, families and children. To ensure that in future, prevent and piecemeal reverse the violence, child abuse should focus on the weaknesses in the coordination of activities between ministries, sectors, topical anaestheticities and communities society.They also need to be urgently overcome the weaknesses in the overall investment structure and the overall budget for child protection research established the National Commission on children to contribute to prevention of violence against children in the future. The politics and relevant agencies should also consider the problem as a factor in the development of local society. Moreover, we should focus on building child protection system in which to strengthen and consolidate the aggroup of civil servants, social workers engaged in the protection, care and forming services social protection young to be systematic and professional.System policies and laws on the protection and care for children should be completed quickly, clearly defining the responsibilities of all levels and branches in this area, can even study the construction of the law. For localities should do better propagation and dissemination of knowledge and education on violence against children and raise awareness of parenting for parents. Parents also must quickly try to correct the realness that is affecting families, such as overly pampered children or children at the mercy And each family member should review yourself, do not blame each other.Need to devote more time to stay inside their love ones, to understand and share with each other, especially when conflicts occur. Despite many difficulties and challenges, but in the next point in time by the resolution of legal, judicial, administrative and other measures of education, social conformity to stop and eventually reverse the violence power, abuse of children. In summary, to prevent violence against children requires the close coordination, synchronization between the three family environment, school and society. CHAPTER IV. terminal ReferencesAppendix Questionnaires used for the research That survey researches about child abuse in Vietnam. This survey questionnaire aims to find out your knowledge child abuse. Therefore, your help is not only utile for me to complete my research, but also useful for futher this problem. Please complete all the following questions. Thanks you for your help I. Personal Information (Please circle your choice) lean .. DOB 1. Gender? Male Female 2. What is your age-group? 18- 23 24-54 over 54 II.Multiple choice Choose and circle the best reaction 1. What do you think about reality child abuse in Vietnam? Very serious dominion Other root 2. Who did talk to you about the event about child abuse in Vietnam? The flock media People around me Dont pay attention 3. If you are in one of the child abuse. At this time happen, did you feel? Always calm (Luon binh tinh ) feeling scared It never happened to me 4. If you suspect or know of a child being abused. What would you do? Nothing Intervene and dissuade (Can thi? p va ngan c? n) Report to political power (Bao cao v? quy? n l? c chinh tr? ) 5. Child abuse- who is having responsibility about child abuse? Family and Social Themselves Both A and B III. Short answered questions Give short answer of these below questions 1. In your conviction, what is cause of child abuse? 2. What should you do if you are young and you think you are being abused by your parent? 3. What do you say to a teen who is telling you tha t they are being abused? 4. Many parents think that spare the rod, spoil the child. What do you think about that opinion? Do you agree or disagree? Why?