Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Americas vietnam war

Vietnam War, which is also referred to as the second Indochina war was one of the longest and most controversial wars of the 20th century.  The war resulted from the ideological differences which arose after the end of the second war and was instigated by the desire between the America and her allies and the Communist block to curtail the growing influence of the other.   The war occurred largely in Vietnam specifically in Laos and Cambodia from 1955 which was just a decade after the end of the Second World War.Like other nations in the regions, Vietnam found herself divided between two sides serving opposing interest of communist and United States.   North Vietnam was supported by communist allies, largely Soviet Union and China, while South Vietnam was supported by the United States which was advocating for growth of democratic governments in the regions.South Vietnam also enjoyed support from other nations who were members of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.   Howev er, the whole war was a protracted struggle between United States and Soviet Union to assume superpower status in the world after the end of the Second World War.[1]The Vietnam War has been described as longest military conflict that United States has every engaged in.   The continued hostilities in Laos and Cambodia led to loss of more than 58,000 American soldiers and civilians serving in the war.   It is also estimated that more than 304,000 were wounded in the course of the war.Up to the end of the war in 1975, Vietnam War had attracted a lot of criticism from not only from American civilians but also leaders in the whole world.   In other word, it was described as a war without a cause and with no justification rather than fulfilling the ego of being the leading nation in the world, which was at the expense Vietnamese and Americans.Vietnam War goes down in history books as one of the humiliating wars that United States had ever engaged in. Despite her military powers, uni ted state lost the war terribly leading to eventual withdrawal from the war in 1975.   [2]The Vietcong, who were slightly armed communist insurgents waged a successful guerilla war using unconventional military tactics and eventually defeated the South Vietnamese Army which was supported by United States and used conventional war and military equipments.The   South Vietnam soldiers allied with the United States forces used superior air strikes to conduct search and destroy tactics which were supported by ground forces, artillery strikes and reinforced with air strikes.   Despite this superiority, United States and the South Vietnam lost the war terribly to the slightly armed communist insurgents.The cause and the reasons why United States lost the Vietnam War has been a subject of debate since then.   Despite deploying its military advisors and combat units, United States could not cope with the insurgence and military tactics that were used by the Vietcong. [3]In the course of the war, Viet Cong suffered a lot of tactical setbacks and lack of military advisors further aggravated their situation.   The main question therefore remains, how did the Viet Cong war strategy give them victory over their enemies despite suffering a number of setbacks?This paper will discuss the Vietnam War specifically   Ã‚  trying to answer the above question. However, the paper will first have an overview of the Vietnam war   looking into how the united states entered the war, the military deployment and how United States forces reinforced South Vietnam forces. Finally the paper will look at the war strategies used during the war and the reason why Vietcong eventually triumphed despite lack of proper military equipments and use of unconventional military strategies.Overview of Vietnam War[4]The genesis of the Vietnam War can be traced to the anti-colonial war that was waged against France.   Famously regarded as the first Indochina war, the first Vietnam War eventua lly culminated to the second Indochina war which attracted the attention of the United States and other anti-communist allies in the world.   After a long Vietnamese struggle that was led by Ho Chin Minh, France was eventually forced to leave Vietnam after more than one hundred years of colonial rule.Communist insurgent forces, which were commanded by General Vo Nguyen Giap eventually defeated French forces in the battle at Dien Bien Phu.   This has been considered as a decisive battle since it convinced France that she could not hold for long in the country and Paris responded by suing for peace. [5]This led to the signing of Geneva Peace Accord in 1954 between France and Vietnam. However, France left Vietnam more divided than she had found the country.In the course of their struggle against France, Vietnam was supported by Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China  Ã‚   which had been very keen in spreading the communist influence in the region.   Soon after t he end of the Second World War, a protracted struggle had ensued between United States and Soviet Union  Ã‚   based on their ideological difference.Like the Europe   scramble for colonization, the end of the Second World War   led to emergence of another   scramble for ideological colonization. The two ideologies were communist governance championed by Soviet Union, and democratic governance championed by United States.   Vietnam was not immune from this scramble and the country came under influence of the two sides.[6]The Vietnam delegates who went to negotiate for the peace accord with France in Geneva found themselves torn between the two ideological sides.   As a result, the Geneva Accord was awkward negotiated and eventually led to the division of the country into to military zones.For the sake of signing of the peace accord, the delegates in Geneva agreed for the temporally partitioning of the country at the Seventh Parallel which led to emergence of South Korea un der the influence of United States and North Korea under the influence of Moscow and her communist allies, mainly China.The communist bloc did not want to engage in another war with the West in the face of ensuing Korean War and they believed that through political influence, they would soon take over South Vietnam without much struggle.[1] Bell, Philip. â€Å"Remembering Vietnam† Current Affairs Bulletin, Vol. 65, no. 2 (July, 2002): 14 [2] Rand, Corp. Insurgent Organization and Operations: A Case Study of the Viet Cong in the Delta, 1964-1966. (Santa Monica, 1997), 12 [3] Michael, Lanning and Dan, Cragg. Inside the VC and the NVA. (Ballantine Books, 1993), 92 [4] Stanley, Karnow. â€Å"Vietnam: A History†. (Viking Press, 1983), 54 [5] Rand, Corp. Insurgent Organization and Operations: A Case Study of the Viet Cong in the Delta, 1964-1966. (Santa Monica, 1997), 53 [6] Michael, Lanning and Dan Cragg. Inside the VC and the NVA. (Ballantine Books, 1993), 35

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

An Overview Of The Prison Systems

This critique on the criminal justice system is going to focus on prisons. Prisons are institutions for the confinement of persons convicted of criminal offenses. This paper is going to discuss the early history of prisons, early American prisons, goals of prisons, North Carolina prisons, and an overall overview of the prison system. Throughout history, most societies have built places in which to hold persons accused of criminal acts pending some form of trial. But the confinement of persons/criminals after a trial for punishment is relatively new. In ancient times (around the 15th century), the penalties for crime were often some type of corporal punishment. Whipping, drawn and quartered, broken on the wheel, burned at the stake, beheaded, hanged, or stretched on the rack. In the 16th century England, vagrants and petty offenders were committed to correctional institutions known as workhouses, a correctional facility for persons guilty of minor criminal violations. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the government began to transport convicted felons to the English colonies. The punishment was initially thought of as the hard labor to which the prisoners were consigned. However, the idea that persons convicted of crime could be punished and then released after a relatively long period of time, was a new concept. Jails were first used as collection points for criminals awaiting transportation. Early jails were mostly dark, overcrowded, and filthy. The prisoners were held together indiscriminately, no separation of men and women, the young and old, the convicted and the unconvicted, or the sane and the insane. In America, the concept of imprisonment became a realization. The English Quaker, William Penn, abolished the death penalty for most crimes in the late 1600s, substituting imprisonment as a punishment. After battling between the reinstatement of the death penalty in 1718 and the replacement with incarceration in 1789, the Walnut Street Goal (Philadelphia) became the first prison in the United States. By the mid 19th century, most of the other states had followed. Two prison models soon emerged in the U.S. The first system, known as the Auburn Model, began in New York in 1817. The prisoners worked together in total silence during the day, but were housed separately at night. Very strict discipline was enforced, and violators were subjected to severe reprisals. The second model, Pennsylvania, began in 1829 at Cherry Hill (Eastern State Penitentiary). The Pennsylvania model was based on solitary confinement for convicts both day and night. The two models were both criticized very vigorously. Proponents of the Pennsylvania model focused on its hope of rehabilitation. The theory of being a felon and locked up alone all day in a cell with nothing but a Bible to read, would help out drastically. The Auburn model was criticized as being virtual slavery. This was thought because of the fact that the prisoners were often put to work for private entrepreneurs who had contracted with the state for their labor. Prisoners were never paid, leaving profits for the business owners and the state. Advocates of the Auburn model alleged that the idleness of the prisoners in the Cherry Hill penitentiary sometimes caused madness. Proponents stressed the activity of the prisoners and the profits from their labor, which meant that the states did not have to finance the prison. Rehabilitation was the systems main goal. In 1870, the National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline (known as the American Correctional Association) met for the first time in Cincinnati, Ohio. The congress adopted a set of principles for corrections, chief of which was the primary goal of rehabilitation. This led to the juvenile reformatories. Although the attempts to rehabilitate were relatively unsuccessful, the goal of rehabilitation changed the criminal justice system in the following decades. Probation and parole, work release, community corrections, and even a separate system of procedures and courts for dealing with juveniles, can all be traced to what was discussed at the first meeting in 1870. The Rehabilitation programs such as vocational training, guidance counseling, and psychotherapy began as part of the whole rehabilitation goal. In 1975, a study of more than 240 such programs essentially concluded that none was truly successful in reducing the recidivism rate (relapse into criminal behavior). Although there have been much criticism to this study, many believe the basic conclusion that participation in these programs was often not really voluntary, because prisoners hoped parole boards would look favorably on those who enrolled. Most penologist (a branch of criminology dealing with prison management and the treatment of offenders) now agree that rehabilitation is not a proper reason for imprisoning someone. Thus, rehabilitation is no longer the only, or even the main objective of correction agencies. In North Carolina, it wasn†t until 1868 that the state adopted a new constitution that provided for a state penitentiary. Inmates began building North Carolinas first prison, Central Prison, in 1870. It was a completed castle-like structure near the state capitol. It was finished in December 1884, when the prisoners started moving in.  · In 1875, these same inmates were leased to private employers as laborers and farmers. Under the lease, businesses had complete responsibility for the inmates. Many worked in rock quarries and built railways, while others farmed two tracts of land that the state leased.  · In 1901, inmates began working on state roads. They were moved from work sight to work sight in horse-drawn prison cages. In 1910, the incentive wage system began and inmates could then earn up to 15 cents a day, paid upon release, for the work that was being done.  · In 1925, the General Assembly enacted a law changing the state†s prison from a corporation to a department of state government. At the time, the state prison system included Central Prison, Caledonia Prison Farm, Camp Polk Prison Farm and eight road camps. Then, due to lack of regular maintenance and repair, the conditions were diminishing. The state took over the control of the prisons and the inmates, and provided new construction money from the Highway Fund for prison renovation.  · In 1935, women inmates form Central Prison moved to a south Raleigh prison camp, the site of today†s Correctional Institution for Women. Women from the Caledonia Prison Farm moved to the Raleigh facility permanently in 1956.  · In 1957, North Carolina became the first state to initiate a work release program that allowed inmates to work in private employment during the day and return to confinement at night.  · In 1958, striped prison clothing was replaced with gray uniforms for close custody, brown for medium, and green for minimum.  · In 1965, all prisons were desegregated and mental health services were established in prisons. Prisoners in North Carolina have numerous things they can do. Prisoners can work, volunteer, go to the correctional chaplain, work out, or just about anything. These inmates work in many different places. Food Services, Unit Services, Work Release, Prison Industry, Road Squads, Construction, State Agencies, Local Agencies, Community Work Crews, Vocational Education, and Academic Education. Other inmates take part in substance abuse treatment, have health problems, or are being admitted into prison. Ministry to the incarcerated is as old as incarceration itself. Chaplincy in North Carolina dates back to 1876. In the spring of 2000, over 100 chaplains were serving the inmate population. Annually, countless numbers of worship services, scripture studies, seminars, counseling sessions, segregation visits, and chaplains conduct special events. Prison chaplaincy is a special ministry of opportunity. It can be a rewarding spiritual endeavor for those persons who have felt a divine call to this challenging ministry. At the beginning of 2001, North Carolina†s prison system consisted of 78 prison units of various sizes with eight of the units having a standard operating capacity of less than 90 inmates. However, the largest facility, Central Prison, has a capacity of 937. The cost of North Carolina†s prison system varies from different forms of custody. For the Fiscal Year 1999-2000, the daily operating cost of the 64 bed medium security prison unit at Cleveland County was $54.06 per inmate per day, compared to the $36.44 per inmate daily cost of the 832 bed medium security unit at Brown Creek. The cost goes by prison security level. The system wide average operational cost for housing inmates in North Carolina prisons in Fiscal Year 1999-2000 was $65.65 per day. It is broken down into:  · Minimum Custody at $52.52 per day In theory, the U.S. prison system today consists of a variety of institutions (minimum, medium, maximum, jails, and federal institutions) each adapted to the characteristics and risks posed by its population. Minimum-security prisons are often built on a campus like arrangement, which allows the prisoners autonomy and freedom within broad bounds. It is a prison facility with the lowest level of security for nondangerous, stable offenders. Prisoners may have rooms with opaque doors rather than cells that are under constant surveillance. Visits are normally private, where close contact with visitors is encouraged in order to enhance their prisoner†s ties with the family and community. Medium-security prisons are a middle-level prison facility with a more relaxed security measures and fewer inmates. Maximum-security prisons (the most secure prison facility) are often massive buildings, with high masonry walls or electrified fences, where the primary concern is security. Prisoners are under constant surveillance where their movements are severely restricted, and many are required to remain in their cells almost the entire day. Outdoor recreation is minimal, and visits, when allowed, are often conducted by telephone, with a glass partition between the prisoner and the visitor. There are about 130 of these maximum-security prisons that collectively house more than 100,000 prisoners. Jails, a place of confinement for persons held in lawful custody: such a place under the jurisdiction of a local government (as a county) for the confinement of persons awaiting trial or those convicted of minor crimes , are typically not part of the state prison system. They are often managed individually by the districts or counties in which they are located. Many criticize the jail, saying that is the worst part of the U.S. penal organization. In recent decades, most prison systems in the U.S. have come under legal scrutiny, and the courts have found them severely wanting. Many have been declared unconstitutional in the sense that the conditions- including idleness, overcrowding, poor medical care, substantial violence, and lack of rights accorded prisoners- render confinement in these institutions â€Å"cruel and unusual† punishment and hence in violation of the 8th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, (Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted ). Such judicial decisions have increased the pressure on state prison authorities to replace their antiquated prison facilities with more modern and humane institutions, in keeping with the ideals set forth by penologists a century ago.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Ethic and Morality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Ethic and Morality - Essay Example To fully define the anti-nature concept, Nietzsche makes it clear that when one denies his own passion, then he is denying the reality. To him, the greatest and best moralities are those, which accommodate nature while the weakest are those who deny it. Particular, the philosopher state that an individual should have a free will to choose what he or she wants and nothing should control or trigger him to do something. In his concept of morality as anti-nature, Nietzsche stated how the extensiveness of morality and religion alter the human nature. Even though many people believe that religion provides a sense of direction in life, the philosopher strongly disagreed. According to him, following a religion means ignoring the nature of humanity since an individual is forced to act in a certain way that pleases the Maker. I disagree with Nietzsche since his argument opposes the religion and thus, discourages most Christians from reading. This essay supports Irish Murdoch’s philosoph y since he captivates readers’ attention with her adequate knowledge in literature and philosophy. Although both Nietzsche and Murdoch deal with the concept of morality in a similar way, there are differences on how the two present their argument. Nietzsche based his argument on a naturalistic perspective of how religion contradicts how humanity is responsible for controlling their given passions and nature. However, Murdoch includes religion in the equation of morality. He based his argument on morality without and with God thus allowing readers to understand his point of views (Jacobus 55). Unlike Nietzsche, Murdoch engages other people’s philosophies in great depth and further incorporates them in her discussion. Nietzsche uses deists’ intellectuals and gives no or little credibility to their experiences and beliefs. While researchers, scholars, and deists can think about other philosophers’ argument on the subject while reading Murdoch argument, Murdo ch creates a platform where readers can decline or accept her argument at any point. Based on how Murdoch presents her arguments, readers can think that the author has not yet concluded her argument but given her readers a free will to choose what they believe. Nietzsche does not take a psychological path to examine the virtue of duty or responsibility (Friedrich 405). Although both Murdoch and Nietzsche derive their beliefs about morality from nature, Nietzsche quoted that â€Å"each individual has the duty to carry out his passions. Just as modern moral philosophers were rediscovering the virtues, social psychologists were uncovering evidence of the church being hostile to human nature † (Friedrich 404). The moralities of being weak in life are discussed in the religious cloak and in this case, Nietzsche believes that the church is hostile to human nature. From Nietzsche’s argument, one can derive the fact that the greatest moralities are those that embrace nature wh ile the weakest deny it. At this point, Nietzsche provides readers with a system that can benefit human beings in life especially on love and hostility. However, Murdoch takes a psychological path and examines the virtue of responsibility or duty. At this point, Murdoch believes that fulfilling one’s duty towards nations, institutions, and others is virtuous deed outside religion. Murdoch continues to argue that dutifulness is in our human nature. It is crucial

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Building Capabilities at the Westward Hilton Case Study

Building Capabilities at the Westward Hilton - Case Study Example th the subordinate staff and the managers could work together to better their business performance regardless of their job positions and ranks (Enz, 2010). This results in a better value of customers and positive financial performance in Westward Hilton. Both part time and full time employees were entitled to bonuses according to feedback from customers. This therefore, ensured that employees would do their best to satisfy their customers who in turn will remain loyal to their services. Westward Hilton also enjoys a brand awareness that is very strong and recall on its brand throughout its target market. The company has many brands like Double Tree, Hilton, Waldorf Astoria Hotels & Resorts and many other brands that enable it to become popular and have a strong brand loyalty among its customers. In addition to this is the flow of communication within the hotel. According to Enz (2010) eedbacks from quests, employees, head of departments and any other people involved were brought forward to a meeting and discussed to find ways of improving the services offered at the hotel. These advantages have proven to be sustainable to the company. Considering the human resource strategy, its competitive advantage lies on the relationship of employees and management. This is something that will definitely last for a very long time as a culture established among the employees internally. In that case, it will be very difficult for other companies to imitate the strategy. t has enabled the company achieve great financial performance and attract and retain their customers. 2. Any decision that will be made by Peter Green and other stakeholders regarding the sale of Westward Hilton will definitely have consequences. The sell will definitely affect the employees in the hotel. With the unique culture of Westward Hilton, the employees are used to a family business environment with team work. In that case, selling the hotel may make its employees feel that they have been abandoned

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Feed Resource Recvery Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Feed Resource Recvery - Research Paper Example The second was the restaurant industry which accounted for about 500 tons of food waste, followed by supermarkets, accounting for around 200 to 400 tons. These are the competitors on the supply chain side who can also turn themselves into CleanTech industry and make a fortune. Now at the industrial level, the biggest and most potential competition for Feed stems from Converted Organics Inc, BlueFire Ethanol, Inc, Disenco Energy PLC, Oakleaf, Rod McLellan Co, and Synargo Technologies. These firms are expert in Organic Soil Additive industry, Green waste management industry, Home power plant manufacturing industry, Recycling equipment manufacturing industry, naturally derived fertilizer manufacturing industry and Residual recycling industry respectively. The best thing about these competitors of Feed is that they are stock listed and already serving a customer base varying from 100,000 to 250,000 customers every year (Zacharakis-Jutz, 2008). Venture capitalists are eager to invest and interested in diversifying their source of income as they can already see the respective industry which Shane wants to enter as a lucrative one. In 2001, the investments made in this sector were only around $500 million to $600 million, which has increased to a staggering $ 2500 to $ 2600 million by 2007 (Zacharakis-Jutz, 2008). Another factor responsible for investors to invest in CleanTech industry is the raising prices of gasoline and fossil fuel around the globe. In this manner, CleanTech’s products seem to be the future of fuel engineering and consumption. Another major factor is the increasing awareness regarding the global warming and impact of industrial waste and carbon emissions on the global weather. With the arrival of CleanTech products, this problem could be solved in an efficient and cheaper manner. Last, but not the least, is consumer markets all over the world are now becoming loyal to those businesses who conduct their business activities with a greener and an eco-friendly strategy (Estes, 2009). Being a venture capitalist, my first and foremost attempt would be to understand how CleanTech industry is unique or which aspects must be considered that make this industry different from others. My second question would be regarding the valuation of the company that I am interested to invest in. By knowing this, I would be able to compare the offered number of shares or equity in the company against the investment I am expected to make. Then, a series of questions focused on different functional costs and operating costs would be there, just to understand the acquisition cost structure that the company will follow. The last part of my interrogation would focus on understanding the person who is asking for investment, as the personality traits also influence decision making skills heavily. I would like to know the background of the entrepreneur, since when he/she has been thinking about this project, what is the vision or success ideas that t hey have in mind, what type of involvement they require from my side in this venture, and when they are going to pay me back my money (Cumming, 2010). Considering the mammoth amount required to build the prototype of the product, it appears that Shan and Ryan’s family will definitely need time to arrange it. In the business world, if an idea is generated by entrepreneurs, it needs to be implemented as soon

Friday, July 26, 2019

Costing Principles Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Costing Principles - Essay Example A cost purpose is an action or product for that the total or unit cost is to be computed. A cost objective may be the product manufactured or the service delivered, or it may be a department, a course, or a function, all of that are referred to as cost centers. The cost axis is the least unit for that costs are mounted up for reporting and analytical functions. Organisations whose products or batches of products are treated as individual jobs use job-order costing systems. Airplane producers and parts suppliers for large manufacturing Organisations, such as tool and die shops, are examples of the users of this system. Organisations use process-costing systems with homogeneous products such as crude oil, chemicals, and grains. Both job-order and process costing systems function to build up unit costs of production, but since of the inherent disparities in the physical characteristics of the products the two methods vary. Standard costing systems absorb standard direct materials, standard direct labor and standard company overhead into production costs. Standard costs are estimated costs that may have a close relationship with budgeted costs. Standard costing systems are widely used by manufacturing organisations. (Shank, 1993, 32-33) The official statement of generally accepted accounting principles, demands that the assessment of inventories by manufacturing firms for external reporting include the full cost, that is, direct materials, direct labor and total company overhead. This system of product costing is called absorption costing or full-absorption costing. (Antos, 1998, 13-14) GAAP also requires that for external reporting actual costs should be used except where the estimated costs are not materially different from actual costs. Direct Costing Direct costing differs from full-absorption costing only in regard to one category of costs, fixed company overhead. Direct costing includes direct materials, direct labor, and variable overhead in the product costs. Fixed company overhead is charged directly to the accounting period. Ending inventory, therefore, never includes any fixed overhead. This system of costing has not been approved for external reporting purposes by GAAP, but may be used for internal purposes. Activity-Based Costing A management tool named activity - based costing (ABC) has turn out to be one of the more extensively clinch of new management styles over the period of the last ten years. Though its nucleus lies in cost accounting, ABC has engrossed the consideration of business managers in general, and has been the focus of researches in the Harvard Business Review and Fortune. Not simply is it a foremost subject matter in business, it has been accepted in parts of government like USA, such as the Department of Defense and the IRS. What commenced as effectively an

The Power Of Identity Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

The Power Of Identity - Research Paper Example The Zabaleen are not paid or paid whenever the house owner feel like but somehow it is the only department that has no failures like the rest of the services in Cairo. This is because the Zabaleen perform their duties without fail and at before dawn making the service invisible but very efficient and almost free of charge. Peter Hessler wrote an article titled tales of the trash: a neighborhoodgarbage man explains modern Egypt. It was written as aletter fromCairo on the 13th of October 2014 issue. This paper will discuss six themes observed in the tales of the trash: a neighborhoodgarbage man explains modern Egypt. In addition, the paper will connect the identified themes to the lives of the people in the article. The six themes identifiedare religion, culture, inequality, self-determination, power and ego. This lettertalks about a man named Sayyid Ahmed who is a Zabaleen or garbage collector. He is illiterate and his only job is collecting garbage. He works for efficiently even without pay and thus provide a remarkably efficient recycling service in Cairo. He find many things in his work as a garbage collector and instead of finding out what they are on his own he enlists the help of the people with whom he collects their garbage. He does this because he is illiterate just like many people in Cairo. Furthermore, he has friends in high places who grant him favors when he runs into trouble. He is well mannered and whenever he is aguest somewhere he carries away his empties which are always beer bottles since he knows he will collect them the following day anyway. Thus he is a very curious man who yearns from people who are literate and learned like ambassadors. Religion can be defined as the structured assembly of beliefs that are used as guidance in the lives of human beings(Kunin& Miles-Watson, 2006). Religion is one of the pillars of many people lives in the

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Forever by Judy Blume (responses) Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Forever by Judy Blume (responses) - Assignment Example The respondent was objective when he acknowledged that the best relationship is between parents and their children. It is important to note that children learn from their parents. For example, Katherine learned responsible parenthood from her mother. The respondent tries to recognize the fact that Katherine had her priorities right when she established a relationship with Michael. However, the respondent fails to illustrate that Katherine was patient and loving until she gave herself to Michael. The respondent also acknowledges the fact that the relationship between Katherine and Michael was healthy until they were separated by distance. Lastly, the respondent was correct when he observed that the relationships between parents and children or basically between the older and young ones are healthy. He was able to note that the relationship between Katherine and her parents allowed her to obtain knowledge on sexually transmitted infections, parenthood and abortion. Her parents also warn her against staying with boys and wishes she would bring them

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Personal Value and Ethical Standards Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Personal Value and Ethical Standards - Essay Example In purely lexical terms, the word ethics comes from the Greek word ethikos which means ‘based on habit’. In present terminology, ethics is taken to be a branch of philosophy which judges individual and collective actions as being right, wrong, good or bad. In business and professional fields like finance, construction, public relations, advertising and many others, the application of ethical principles is said to be a part of the good practices which create and increase credibility for the business interest (Alexandra & Woodruff, 1990). The field of human services is not exempt from the practice of ethics and there is an entirely different branch of ethics connected with the actions of those who interact with individuals in need. In fact, even those who have no contact with others and are only conducting research on the various topics under the field have to follow ethical and legal guidelines that govern how research can be done on any particular topic (Scanlon, 2000). Thus, every individual from researchers to those who actually provide services have to follow ethical guidelines. Therefore, it is important to understand what ethical guidelines are in actuality. Velasquez et. al. (1987) report that when people on the street were inquired about the meaning of ethics, they said that ethics have to do with internal feelings of what is right and wrong or that ethics are religious beliefs or that ethics are legal requirements. People also considered ethics to be acceptable behavior as per the rules of society and some simply did not know what it meant. While the responses stated above may come naturally given the context the word ethics is so often used in. It must be clarified that ethics have nothing to do with the internal feelings of a person (Alexandra & Woodruff, 1990). This is because personal feelings and emotions about something may lead a person to do what

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Emergency Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 5

Emergency Management - Assignment Example Some of these measures need proper training depending on the field of emergency management (McEntire, 2007). For instance, bomblast response tends to be totally different from football injury response. The magnitude of a problem calls for more time and a lot of aiding facilities to fasten the EM process. A large scale disaster tends to be very intensive in terms of management hence enough aiding facilities needed to accomplish the whole EM process. An intensive training and exercise is needed to catch up with such high magnitude disasters. All the needed aid facilities are supposed to be ready before a disaster to enhance effective control system. In any disaster or emergency management institution, employees must have the skills to operate machinery and basic knowledge to sport, understand, analyze and understand and respond to any kind of disaster within the institution scope. There are many institutions around the world that respond to different kinds of disasters. Specialization and employee training are vital factors in such institutions bearing the magnitude and high rate of daily catastrophes (McEntire, 2007). The training programs and exercises are meant to deepen employee understanding on proper measures to apply in dealing with different levels of disasters. Good strategies must also be employed to accomplish any EM activity successfully. According to the EM response of Luis Tapia and Matt Feryan, EM exercise and planning takes quite a long time depending on the time frame set by institutional managers or instructors (Dhillon etal, 2012). Minor exercise programs can take up to six months while major ones take close to one year. As per my perception, large scale disaster control programs should take more than one year to enhance proper preparation and catastrophe response tactics. Luis Tapia and Matt Feryan’s response to emergency management in the transcript shows that coordination among EM personnel is

Monday, July 22, 2019

Ceratopteris Fern Growth and Analysis Essay Example for Free

Ceratopteris Fern Growth and Analysis Essay I: Abstract Observing the effects of ammonium nitrate has on the germination days of C-Fern gametophytes by constructing an experiment with two spore-sown petri dishes, one control and one treatment – a normal nutrient-rich agar petri dish and an ammonium nitrate-containing petri dish respectively. The two petri dishes were each inoculated with three drops of spore suspension by a pipet, then spores were spread by a sterilized-bent paper clip to allow even distribution of spores. Gametophyte germination occurred approximately two weeks after inoculation for the control, and gametophyte germination occurred approximately three weeks after inoculation for the treatment; thus possibly suggesting ammonium nitrate worked to hinder the mitotic cell division in the haploid gametophyte. II: Introduction C-Fern begins with a haploid spore known as the spore imbibition (Hickok, Warne 2009), then after 3 to 4 days the spore will develop into a gametophyte via mitosis after germination. This is a photoautotrophic process. The gametophyte will then undergo differentiation (Hickok, Warne 2009), to form the antheridium and the archegonium after 6 to 8 days (Hickok, Warne 2009). Following the gametophyte displaying its hermaphrodite form, sexual maturity allows cross-fertilization to occur between the sperm from antheridium and the egg from archegonium. After one sperm fertilizes the egg, a zygote forms, thus forming a diploid cell (Hoshizaki 2001). The formation of the zygote exemplifies sporophytes’ alternation of generations via the diploid cell completing mitosis and meiosis yet still retaining a full set of genetic material. In other words, alternation of generation refers to going from a multicellular diploid form to a multicellular haploid form. (Hickok, Warne 2009). The fertilized egg develops into a sporophyte by mitosis to form a microscopic young fern (embryo), which is a gametophyte under the reproductive leaves called sporangia. Note that sporophytes are diploid and gametophytes are haploid. When the sporophyte reaches maturity, it releases spores via meiosis, then the spores will undergo mitosis, thus forming gametophytes, and the life cycle continues (Brooker 2011). Figure 1 is a pictorial depiction of the life cycle of a fern. [pic] Figure 1: The life cycle of a fern. [1] This experiment aims to discover the germination time of C-Fern under a controlled condition and a treatment condition. Experimenting if the treatment of ammonium nitrate will allow faster germination of the C-Fern. Some data shows that ammonium nitrate possibly functions as a fertilizer for many species of plants, however, not all plants will reap the benefits of ammonium nitrate (Aderkas 1984). [2] The null hypothesis of this experiment is that the ammonium nitrate will not hinder the rate of germination of the C-Fern, thus the data obtained from the control will not have a statistical difference from the data obtained from the treatment. III: Methods Two 60 mm petri dishes were prepared. One labeled â€Å"C† for control, another labeled â€Å"T† for treatment. The control contained a layer of agar and the treatment contained agar and ammonium nitrate. Petri dish for control was inoculated with three drops of C-Fern spore suspension via a pipette, and petri dish for treatment was inoculated three drops of C-Fern spore suspension via the same pipette. A Bunsen burner was used to sterilize a bent â€Å"T† shaped paper clip, the paper clip was used to spread the spore suspension in the petri dish for control. The same paper clip was sterilized again by a 70% ethanol solution and was used to spread spore suspension in treatment petri dish. Two petri dishes were each covered with a lid and now considered culture trays, culture trays then were transported to a climate controlled light dome for optimal growth. Light dome maintained a full spectrum of light 24/7 with temperature in the range of 28 to 30 degrees Celsiu s. Observations were made on every Friday at approximately 3:10 pm for the next 3 weeks. Spores were sown in the week of September 10th and no observations were made. First observation was made in the week of September 17th, Friday 3:08 pm, the control displayed some growth with flagella-like hair, however, no germination was observed. The treatment did not display any signs of growth, only air-like bubbles were observed. Second observation was made in the week of September 24th, Friday 3:10 pm, the control displayed germination, gametophytes were visible under the microscope, however, hermaphrodites were not significantly observed. The treatment still does not display signs of germination, only small green spores were observed under the microscope. Last observation was made in the week of October 1st, Friday 3:05 pm, the control displayed significant signs of growth, it appeared that fertilization took place and an embryo was in development. The treatment only displayed minimal germination, however, some spores appeared to be infested with fungus.

Toyota Hr Policies Essay Example for Free

Toyota Hr Policies Essay INTRODUCTION Toyota is one of the worlds largest automobile manufacturers, selling over 8.8 million models in 2006 on all five continents. A Top 10 Fortune Global 500 enterprise, Toyota ranks among the worlds leading global corporations and is proud to be the most admired automaker, an achievement the company believes stems from its dedication to customer satisfaction. Toyota has been shaped by a set of values and principles that have their roots in the companys formative years in Japan. The Toyota story begins in the late 19th century, when Sakichi Toyoda invented Japan’s first power loom, which was to revolutionize the country’s textile industry. In January 1918, Sakichi founded the Toyoda Spinning Weaving Company, and with the help of his son, Kiichiro Toyoda, he fulfilled his lifelong dream of building an automatic loom in 1924. Two years later, he established Toyoda Automatic Loom Works. Like his father, Kiichiro was an innovator, and during his visits to Europe and the U.S. in the 1920s, he became deeply interested in the nascent automotive industry. Making the most of the  £100,000 that Sakichi Toyoda received for selling the patent rights of his automatic loom, Kiichiro laid the foundations of Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC), which was established in 1937. From looms to cars, the Toyota experience has been shaped by extending the boundaries of manufacturing. GENERAL HR POLICIES The Toyota company-wide culture is the key ingredient in its success as the global leader in operational excellence. They achieved by the following means * Attracting, developing, and engaging exceptional people * Encouraging problem solving at all levels of your organization * Making management accountable to employees * Inspiring your people to be committed to the company, family, and community * Turning your HR department into the arbitrators of fair and consistent daily practices DIVERSITY AND EQUAL OPPURTUNITY 1. Toward Promotion of Womens ParticipationIn 2002, based on the principle of respecting diversity and with the aim of reforming management throughout the company, Toyota set its sights on womens participation, reviewing its arrangement with regard to female employees, and taking steps to put a better environment in place. In order to promote the creation of an environment more conducive to participation by motivated female employees, Toyota has made a three-pronged effort to: * Help enable women to work and raise children at the same time; * Assist in womens career building, * Reform the working environment and employee awareness. Toyota has also introduced flexible working arrangements and constructed child-care facilities at business sites. 2. EMPLOYMENT FOR DISABLED PERSONAs of March 2003, Toyota employed about 800 disabled people in many kinds of positions at various workplaces. Toyota believes in helping the disabled achieve autonomy within society, and makes it a basic rule to have them work together with other employees. Human consideration is given to the conditions of their disability at the business sites and ways are devised to accommodate them in workplace facilities so as to create a workplace environment that is safe and easy to work in. As of the end of March 2003, Toyotas disabled employee’s ratio was 1.95%, exceeding the 1.8% Legal Employment Quota.| 3. TOYOTA CHILD CARE BUBU LANDIn March 2003, the Toyota Child Care Bubu Land, an on-site childcare facility (in Toyota City, Head Office area), was opened so that all employees, both male and female, who wished to continue working while raising children could do so without worry. The facility has many useful features, which include having a resident nurse on the staff and staying open until 10:30 pm. One female employee using the facility (with a one-year-old child in care) expressed her sentiments in the following way: Its located at the company, so drop-off and pick-up are easy, and I can continue working without having to worry if extra work should suddenly crop up. PRACTICE OF THE TOYOTA WAY| Toyota Way| Values and ways of thinking that should be held by those working for Toyota| Toyota problem-solving techniques| Techniques for improving current conditions in order to realize ideal working conditions| Ji Kotei-Kanketsu (Built-in quality with ownership)| How to work in order to continually produce the best output| Education of subordinates| Systems for training subordinates through ones daily work| Policy management| Managing implementation items that should be initiated in order to accomplish workplace missions and create new value| Basic skills| Minimum skills necessary for production line work| Production skills| * Knowledge regarding recognizing irregularities and work points * Trouble-shooting capability| Skills and Roles of Management and Supervision| * Manager and supervisor skills for soundly managing standard operations * | | ICT PROGRAM FOR SELF-RELIANCE OF AFFILIATES AND CONTRIBUTION TO LOCAL COMMUNITIESIn order to promote self-reliance in overseas affiliates, the ICT (Intra Company Transferee) program temporarily transfers employees of overseas affiliates to TMC for human resource development through on-the-job training. Transferees learn skills and know-how throughout their training periods which range from six months to three years. As of the end of April 2012, a total of 450 transferees from 48 affiliates in 27 countries were working in Japan under the program| |

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Difficulties Arabic Students Face In English Language Learning

Difficulties Arabic Students Face In English Language Learning In educational settings the language is both the medium and content of instruction. Academic success is dependent on proficiency of spoken and written forms of the language used for instruction (Shatz and Wilkinson 2010: 55). Introduction Next to the United States, the United Kingdom receives the biggest number of international students in the world. In 2009, 13 percent of the total undergraduate population enrolled in the UK were international students (UK Council for International Student Affairs 2009). More specifically, college entrants from Saudi Arabia increased rapidly by 42.2 percent from 3,535 in 2008 to 5,205 in 2009 (Times Higher Education 2010). This dramatic rise of the Arabic international student cohort in the UK requires immediate attention especially in relation to the academic adjustments these students make in the school environment. One of the most significant adjustments for Arabic international students is learning the English language, a phenomenon driven by the demands of globalisation and the now widespread use of English as a second language in the educational curriculum even in Arab countries (Tahaineh 2010). While the process of English language learning among Arab students within their hom e countries has gained much academic attention (Khatib, 2000; Tahaineh, 2010; Ghaith and Diab 2008), not enough research focus has been made on the experiences of Arabic international students in the UK. What is known today is too scant to be applied practically in policymaking or in educational practice. This dissertation explores two main points, firstly, it highlights how little we know about the difficulties that Arabic international students face in learning the English language and secondly, it calls for the need to undertake more robust empirical work on the growing Arabic international student cohort in the UK. This mixed methods research will be a valuable contribution to UK educators in helping Arabic students learn effectively at the same time achieving institutional goals as well as meeting the educational expectations and needs of Arabic students in the UK. Research question This dissertation aims to answer the central question, What difficulties do Arabic students in the UK face when learning the English language? There are two sub-questions proposed which will guide the outcomes of this research. What issues do Arabic students face in English language learning? The literature review suggests that the difficulties Arabic international students may face when learning the English language are multi-faceted. It may involve basic structural differences between Arabic and English (Shabbir Bughio 2003), cultural issues (Elyas and Picard 2010), motivation and self-esteem (Al-Tamimi Shuib 2009), and social issues (Shammas 2009). What strategies do they use to overcome the barriers identified? After discovering the issues that Arabic international students face in English language learning, it is important to uncover the strategies that they employ in order to cope with the difficulties faced. Rationale and context The context of this proposed dissertation is of a general and personal nature. ESL literacy has always been an ongoing academic interest of the researcher. While in the past, learning the English language was viewed as a betrayal of the mother tongue for most Arabic students, the demands of free market globalisation has prompted a renewed vigour among Arab universities and Arabic students to become proficient in the English language. On a personal level, I have always been concerned with the skills of Arabic international students in reading and writing. Studying the English literacy experiences of these students will contribute to an increase in our understanding as to what strategies could help Arabic students obtain English proficiency and attain their educational goals. At the same time, it will also address the gap in literature which can inform the policymaking and institutional practice of UK universities in meeting the needs and expectations of Arabic international English learners. By describing the experiences of Saudi students in L2 literacy experience, we can begin to draft useful conclusions, implications, and recommendations to contribute to second language acquisition and proficiency in general and ESL literacy in particular. Literature review A preliminary literature review reveals significant themes related to the difficulties that Saudi international students experience in learning the English language. 1. Basic structural differences of Arabic and English The most common difficulty experienced in English language learning and proficiency among Arab students lies in the basic structural differences between the mother tongue and the second language. For instance, Arabic writing does not use capitalisation and uses different rules in punctuation from English (Shabbir Bughio 2003). Spelling is also a problem since in Arabic, there is only one letter per sound so the spelling part is much more challenging in English. A study revealed that students struggle with spelling silent alphabets located in the middle of English words such as half or knowledge. Pronunciation of English words is also problematic since Arab speakers often use Arabic phonetics to pronounce words (Salebi 2004). As a result, words like stupid are pronounced istobbid while pregnant is pronounced brignent (Shabbir Bughio 2003). The use of commas and conjunctions is also another difficulty for Arabic students because the usage is different in Arabic and English contexts ( Rababah 2002). The same is true on the use of English prepositions; due to the varied nature and usage of prepositions in English, many Arabic students opt to translate each Arabic preposition in English (Shabbir Buhgio 2003). Kambal (1980) documented major syntactic errors in the compositions of Arab students in the Sudanese University particular in verb formation, subject-verb agreement, and use of tenses. 2. Motivation in learning EFL Motivation has been an established predictor of success EFL outcomes (Al-Tamimi Shuib 2006). Consequently, a learners attitude towards the second language affects his or her outcomes in English language learning. Gardner and Lambert (1972:3) explained that a learners motivation to learn is reflected in the latters attitudes towards English speakers as well as towards the English language itself. In fact, empirical research has pointed to a learners general attitude towards knowledge as an influential variable in second language acquisition and proficiency (Arkoudis 2003). Moreover, self-esteem has been shown to be a significant predictor in writing achievement among Arabic secondary students (Al-Hattab 2006). Beliefs on the English language are mediated by culture and social characteristics (Ely 1986). This means that not all people hold uniform epistemological beliefs about L2 language acquisition and that our appreciation of the knowledge process is dependent upon our different co ntexts. Some argue however that while motivation and attitudes towards the L2 language is important, it is not a sufficient condition in language proficiency (Ely 1986). In a survey of Arabic students in Australia, general attitudes towards the English language were positive; most believed that English symbolised technological advancement and modernity (Suleiman 1983). In another study, it was found that positive attitudes toward English language learning were related to EFL outcomes (Ghaith and Diab 2008). 3. Cultural issues Culture plays an important role in the English language learning process, especially in relation to language instruction (Elyas and Picard 2010). In Saudi Arabia, classroom instruction is delivered in a different manner from Western schools. The classroom is a place where the teacher is an established head and the students role is defined in terms of quietness of loving to listen (Jamjoom 2009, as cited Elyas and Picard 2010). Teacher-student relationships in the Saudi context are feudal; teachers and instructors occupy a high tier in the classroom and so-called student-centred pedagogy is not a common practice (Gallagher 1989). The implication of this is that most Saudi students are not accustomed to interactive teaching processes, one that cultivates proficiency in the English language. Arabic students only learn English from formal instruction and the classroom itself does not provide a venue wherein they could practice their English communication skills (Rababah 2002). This class room acculturation creates potential problems in the context of English language learning in a UK university where classroom interaction is a popular teaching model. Most Arabic students become unsociable in class, do not recite as often as needed, and speak English only when directed formally (Ghaith and Diab 2008). Moreover, teacher attitudes and behaviours towards Saudi students may also count against EFL. Cross-cultural differences have been shown to affect classroom sociability of Arabic students (Rababah 2002). 4. Social issues Alienation in the university setting has been found to influence the academic outcomes of Arabic international students in the USA (Shammas 2009) particularly after the 9/11 terror attacks. The same alienation was reported by Arabic students when the school climate became hostile in some universities within the UK (Rich and Troudi 2006). The level of integration that Arabic international students experience in their universities is helpful in enhancing motivation to learn the English language (Shammas 2009). Feelings of isolation due to the loss of social capital increases sociability among Arabic international students and may result to loss of self-esteem and motivation. Those who are able to renew their social capital by connecting with new friends Arabic or not have a greater chance of being successful in being proficient in the English language. Research approach Empirical work examining the processes of second language acquisition and the effectiveness of strategies focused on learning English as a second language has utilised both quantitative and qualitative research approaches (Ghaith and Diab 2008; Al-Hattab 2006; Rabab-ah 2002). This study proposes a mixed methods approach integrating both qualitative and quantitative elements to more adequately explore the English language learning process among Arabic international students in the UK. Considered a bridge between the quantitative and qualitative realms of research, mixed methods research draws upon the strengths of both paradigms to generate a more complete and thorough investigation of a topic or phenomenon (Johnson and Onwuegbuzie 2004). To this end, mixed methods research supposes that the two research paradigms can be reconciled, maximising the strengths of both while minimising their weaknesses at the same time (Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003). In deciding what research approach best suits the purposes of this study, I considered two ontological positions constructivist and positivist on the topic. Firstly, I consider that Arabic students are differently situated and construct their realities from their own experiences and values. In this regard, there is no one version of reality that could be gleaned (Denzin and Lincoln 1994) on how Arabic international students experience English language learning. Secondly, however, I believe that it is possible to establish what a causal relationship (Creswell 2003) or the particular factors predict English language proficiency among Arabic students in general. In other words, we can determine what specific difficulties can influence English language proficiency among Arabic students. From a pragmatic point of view, both ontological positions are useful in this investigation, hence, a mixed methods paradigm. Why use a stand-alone paradigm when you can use two paradigms and in the pro cess, capture the phenomenon being studied more fully? Mixed methods research is a methodologyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ philosophical framework, method, and techniques of data collection and analysis which combines both quantitative and qualitative processes throughout the entire research cycle (Creswell and Plano Clark 2007:5). The benefits of conducting mixed methods research are three-fold: 1) it allows a holistic investigation of a phenomenon; 2) it enables a macro- and micro- investigation of the phenomenon; and 3) it has validating capacity of quantitative with qualitative methods and vice versa (Onwuegbuzie and Leech 2004). This study proposes a research approach consisting of two phases. The first phase is the quantitative phase; the goal is to determine what specific issues Arabic students face in learning the English language and how these variables are related to each other. The second phase builds on the results of the quantitative phase and explains the outcomes more fully. The quantitative phase will utilise a web-based survey questi onnaire to be followed by face-to-face interviews for the qualitative phase. The idea of this research technique is that by integrating both numerical data (survey questionnaire) and textual data (interviews), the difficulties Arabic international students phase in English language learning can be captured more completely and comprehensively. Research Design There are several variations in design to a mixed methods study. Three issues are considered in the selection of the specific mixed methods design for this particular research: priority, implementation, and integration (Creswell and Plano Clark 2007). Priority specifies which method is emphasised; implementation identifies whether data collection and analysis is done sequentially (different stages) or concurrently (parallel stages); and integration defines the connectedness between the results of the two phases. This study uses the sequential explanatory design to investigate the experiences of Arabic international students in English language learning. Sequential explanatory design A sequential explanatory design is chosen. The data collection and analysis will consist of two phases (Creswell, 2003; Onwuegbuzie and Teddlie 2003). The first phase will use a web-based survey questionnaire to be answered by a manageable random sample of Arabic international students enrolled in one UK university. Data collected will be analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square. The second phase of the study will proceed after the completion of the first phase. It will build on the findings of the first phase and use individual semi-structured interviews of five Arabic international students. The goal of the second phase is provide a more in-depth explanation of the difficulties experienced by Arabic students and the strategies they use to overcome these difficulties. Through the integration of data from both the quantitative and qualitative phase, the results will be refined and the phenomenon explored in a more holistic manner. More specifically, this explanatory mix ed methods research uses the follow-up explanations variant in an attempt to understand more fully the process in which Arabic students learn English in foreign universities. The follow-up explanations model is selected because the qualitative phase means to explain and expand on quantitative results (Creswell 2003: 43). The priority phase of this study is the qualitative phase because of its capability to provide a more complete picture of the phenomenon being considered. Using a pragmatic ontological position which values positivist and interpretivist assumptions, the study uses two general instruments and triangulation methods to establish validity and reliability of research findings. Phase 1: Quantitative (Survey questionnaires) A self-constructed online survey questionnaire will be used to gather data on the difficulties experienced by Arabic students in English language learning. Items in the questionnaire will be drawn from the literature review and will measure difficulties in five aspects: 1) structural adjustments from Arabic to English (spelling, punctuation, grammar, etc.), 2) motivation, 3) cultural issues, and 4) social issues. After the selection of participants, a URL will be sent via email to participants advising them to read the consent form and to indicate their compliance. The survey will also be available on Facebook and other social networking sites. After gathering data, results will be analyzed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. Phase 2: Qualitative (Face-to-face interviews) After the first phase of data collection and data analysis, in-depth interviews will be scheduled with six Arabic international students in order to gather information that will further explain the results of the survey questionnaire. A semi-structured interview guide will be developed in order to allow the participants to discuss their answers in a more flexible manner. The semi-structured nature of the interview guide will also allow the researcher to clarify or ask follow-up questions that can further refine the data. Interviews will be audiotaped with the participants consent and transcribed immediately afterwards. Qualitative analysis will be used to gather recurring themes from the interview data. Validity and Reliability To establish the validity and reliability of the outcomes of this study, content validity and triangulation through multiple sources will be used. To establish content validity, the survey instrument will be evaluated by a panel of specialists. Multiple sources such as documents and academic papers will also be requested from interviewees. Member checking will be done to verify the accuracy of the transcribed interviews. Ethical Issues The following ethical considerations are identified. Institutional requirements will be met before data collection. Permission to conduct the study will be obtained by securing approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the University. The researcher will complete the ethics form and wait for approval before beginning the collection of data. Consent will be secured. An informed consent will be drafted to explain to participants the purposes and objectives of the study as well as the rights of participants regarding confidentiality and voluntarism. The same form will be attached to the online survey as proof of compliance with ethical requirement for research. Anonymity and confidentiality of information will be guaranteed. Procedures will be done to protect the rights of human subjects. Every completed questionnaire will be coded in order to hide the identity of participants. For the personal interviews conducted, each participant will be informed that the interview will be audiotaped for documentation. Transcript of the interviews will use pseudonyms instead of real names. Data storage requirements will also be complied with. Transcripts and hard drives will be secured in a locked cabinet to be destroyed after the study is published. Bias will be bracketed to minimise prejudicial interpretation of data. Ethics requires the researcher to fully disclose any potential conflicts of interest. Bias is acknowledged to arise from data collection until the final phases of the study. Risk of bias will be minimised through bracketing and a written reflection log to trace subjectivities. Research schedule 2011 Activities May Completion of dissertation proposal June IRB form completed and passed July Additional literature review Survey questionnaire developed August Methodology chapter finalised Survey questionnaire piloted and evaluated Revisions to questionnaire finalised September Selection of participants October First phase of data gathering Analysis of results quantitative phase November Write up of results and advising December Refining of literature review Drafting of interview guide and approval 2012 January Selection of interviewees Conduct of interviews Transcription and qualitative analysis February Integration of findings from Phase 1 and Phase 2 Meet with supervisor Pass first draft of findings and conclusions March Check references. Finalise draft. April Final proofreading and revisions. Send to binders. May Submit bound copies by May 2012. Reflective commentary Writing this dissertation proposal has not only been a significant educational experience for me; it was also a reflexive opportunity. I was given an avenue with which to consider my own perspectives about obtaining higher education in a foreign university and the experiences which have so far brought me to the level I am now situated. Preparing the literature review was the most rewarding part of all because it enabled me to acknowledge the multifaceted and complex nature of the English language learning process. Simply put, acquiring a second language is not a simple feat. It is influenced by multiple factors and influences. While I was able to gather the most significant themes associated with English language learning among Arabic international students, I look forward to constructing the more detailed literature review in the future.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Book Review of Primo Levis Survival in Auschwitz Essay -- European Hi

Book Review of Primo Levi's Survival in Auschwitz World War II was a war that took many lives from civilians that deserved to have a life of their own. They were ordinary people who were victims from a horrible and lengthy war that brought out the worst in some people. In Primo Levi's Survival in Auschwitz, Levi gives a detailed account of his life in a concentration camp. Primo Levi was a young Italian chemist who was only twenty-four years old when he was captured by the Nazis in 1943. He spent two long and torturous years at Auschwitz before the Russian army freed the remaining prisoners of the camp. He tells about life inside the camp and how tough it was to be held like an animal for so long. He says they were treated as inhumanly as possible while many others in the camp would end up dying from either starvation or being killed. They had to do work that was very strenuous while they had no energy and had to sleep in quarters that resembled packed rat cages. With all of this, Levi describes the complex social system tha t develops and what it takes to survive. The soc...

Friday, July 19, 2019

Colonization and the Black Mans Struggle Essay -- A Level Essays

Colonization and the Black Man's Struggle Slavery was one of the most horrific and in human acts ever instilled on a race of people ever in our world's history. People were stolen from their homelands, broken apart from their families, and were thrust into a lifestyle that inhibited their every move and instilled harsh punishments on them. It is almost impossible for many of us to comprehend the mindsets that these slave owners possessed, but history paints a truly horrific and emotional picture for us all to see. In speaking about slavery many quickly think of the African struggle under the possession of the whites, but slavery is not nearly as recent an occurrence as 1492 when Columbus reached the New World. For thousands of years slaves have been used for means of menial labor and the general dirty work of the more wealthy proprietors. Slaves were used in the creation of the pyramids in Egypt, work on Mayan temples in South America, and even used by the Mongols in northern Asia as a part of the Mongolian fighting machine. The enslavement of the Africans, however, created a legacy of oppression and tyranny that carried on much longer after the abolition of the systems. The reason for this is that African slaves were not looked upon as humans at all, but as a commodity that could be abused and sold purely for the purpose of making a profit. In most other instances of slavery throughout history motives like religion and love for a king drove the souls of the men and women laborers. This is the major striking difference between the Africans enslaved by the white man from the early fifteen hundreds until today. Although today slavery is abolished in all of Europe and America the people of Africa are still in a sense enslaved by... ... domination over others. Bibliography Barrett, E. Leonard. (1997). The Rastafarians. Boston: Beacon Press. Bridges, George. (1828). The Annals of Jamaica. London: Frank Cass and Company Limited. Carley, Mary. (1963). Jamaica: Old and the New. New York: Fredrick A. Praeger Publishing. Floyd, Berry. (1979). Jamaica- an Island Microcosm. New York: Saint Peters Press. Gardner, W. J. (1873). A History of Jamaica. London: Frank Cass and Company Limited. Green, Cencilia. (1997). Historical Roots of Modern Caribbean Politics. Against the Current. Vol. 12, (4), 34-38. Hart, Richard. (1999). Towards Decolonisation: Political, Labour, and Economic Development in Jamaica. Kingston: Canoe Press. Manley, Michael. (1975). A Voice at the Workplace. Washington D. C.: Howard University Press. Verrill, A. Hyatt. (1931). Jamaica of Today. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company.

Making the Cut :: Women Gender Issues Essays

Making the Cut In response to the failure of the International Bill of Gender Rights to pass congress in the fall of 2010, I propose a film that challenges society to examine the controversies surrounding gender identity construction and transgender people (Phyllis Randolph Frye, Esq., 1.) My film, "Making the Cut," is based loosely on the true story of Johns Hopkins Hospital case study "Joan/John," and chronicles the life of athlete Carla/Carlos Garcia (Diamond, 1). The film uses the example of sport as an indication that society is not yet ready to fully accept transgender individuals into its community. The film begins shortly after the protagonist Carla/Carlos has been born. The doctors immediately realize that the child has been born with a micropenis and determine, as is done to approximately 100 to 200 US children annually, that the child should undergo sex-selection surgery and be raised as a girl (Diamond, 1). The doctors attempt to explain this to the baby's mother, but as she only speaks Spanish their words are lost on her. Not being able to afford prenatal care, the mother has had no expectations for the sex of her child and rejoices when the doctors bring her a baby "girl," whom she names Carla. Carla grows up in Harlem and throughout her childhood is incl ined to participate in activities that society has historically associated with boys: sports, building furniture and playing in mock-fighting games. Carla feels more comfortable in the company of boys and often finds she identifies more closely with their lives than those of her female peers. As an athlete, Carla excels at basketball and earns the recognition of her high school coach and local media as being a basketball sensation. In her senior year, Carla is recruited to play basketball for the University of Connecticut on scholarship. Excited at the prospect of leaving the projects and being the first member of her family to attend college, Carla joins the basketball team. While studying at UCONN, Carla attends a lecture about sex-selection operations for a class. Immediately, she identifies with the stories of people whose sex was decided by their doctors at birth and begins to question her own gender identity. She starts an investigation into her childhood and discovers the med ical records recounting her sex-selection operation. Nervous about the significance of her discovery for her future, but relieved to learn that her inclinations towards feelings of masculinity had biological backing, Carla decides to live her life identifying as male.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Unit 3 Health and Safety Describe How Key Legislation in Relation to Health, Safety and Security Influence Health and Social Care Delivery.

Unit 3 health and safety Describe how key legislation in relation to health, safety and security influence health and social care delivery. Health and social care settings are covered by specific legislation and laws from the government to enable the care setting is operating the optimum way. Acts like the Health and safety at work act (1974) this act applies to all workplaces and it pull all the laws together so that all organisations were covered by the same legislation. However there are other regulations that apply to specific areas of work. These are The food safety act 1990 This act ensures that all food complies with the food safety act and its definition which includes drinks and chewing gum. There are four major offences in this act. – Making food dangerous to health deliberately or accidentally (adding things to food) – Selling food that does not complies with the food safety requirement being unfit for human consumption. – Selling food that is not of t he nature or quality required by the consumer. – Falsely describing, labelling or advertising food and food products. †¢ safety (general food hygiene) regulations 1995 This act ensures all food is handled correctly, the area where food is prepared must be clean, hands must be washed, hair should be covered, separate work areas should be used to prevent cross contamination of cooked and raw food. Following this regulation is especially important in health and social care settings as service users may be vulnerable. †¢ Reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences regulations (RIDDOR)1995 The RIDDOR regulation applies to all places of work, but not to all work incidents need to be reported. Incidents that need to be reported are ones that happened because of the work the people were doing. To be serious enough to be reported under RIDDOR an accident would have to result in an employee: -dying -injuries resulting in 3 days or more off from work – suffering from major injuries like fractured bones (these exclude fractures to the fingers, thumbs or toes), amputation of limbs and dislocation. †¢ Control of substances hazardous to health regulation (COSHH) 2002. This legislation was introduced in 2002 and covers the use and storage of chemicals. All health and social care services have to ensure that their working environment is safe and can not harm the service users or care professionals. An example of this would be at a nursery cleaning products like bleach being left in the reach of children. †¢ Manual handling operations regulations 1992 This act promotes safer moving and handling and appropriate use of equipment for example using lifts to help service users in an out of the bath instead of trying to live a service user by hand. This is an important act in health and social care because it prevents injuries to service users or care employees †¢ Data protection act 1998 This act protects individual’s rights to their personal data being stored. This act covers the processing, gathering, storing and sharing of an individual’s data. This is important in health and social care settings as service users information is used daily. When sharing an individual’s personal data consent to the sharing of their data is needed. Management of health and safety at work regulations 1999 This regulation requires employers to carry out regular risk assessments, look at changes and then re-asses the risks as necessary. This is important in health and social care settings as care organisations have a duty to minimise to their service users. Unit 3 health and safety Describe how policies and procedures promote health, safety and security in a health and social care workplace. Whilst on work experience at Jubilee children centre I was informed on a number of different policies and procedures. I was shown where the first aid box was and shown a book that I would have to write in if I injured myself this comes under (RIDDOR). The nursery officer told me that all the staff where qualified first aiders. Names of staff and children were registered in the morning as a safety precaution and also as a fire procedure. This is to ensure that all people present in the nursery can be accounted for in the event of a fire. A safety gate to the nursery had to be closed at all times and

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Psychodynamic approach Essay

P1 Explain the principle mental perspectives.M1 Assess diametrical psychological onward motiones to guide.Sigmund Freud highly- stop an speak to which was the first psychological approach that elucidated behaviour. Freud disc overed the psychoanal retentiveysis, which is a technique for solidification mental illness and overly a theory which explains human behaviour. Psychoanalysis is prize as the converseing cure. Norm onlyy, Freud would inspire his diligents to talk freely (on his famous couch) concerning their symptoms and to explain only what was on their mind. He also states The crisphead lettuce which has 3 levels known as the informed mind, preconscious and unconscious mind mind. Freud comp ard himself to an archaeologist digging absent layers of the human mind, and found cardinal distinct parts of the mind.He was the earliest philosophers to arise public aw arness the judgment that we argon non conscious of all our features all the succession. He propo sed that what we be conscious of is delineated on our conscious mind yet that more or less of our memories, feelings and mind he named as unconscious. We dont pay access to the contents of our unconscious, besides they on occasion leak out in dreams and slips of the tongue. Freuds first elucidated behaviour by his iceberg analogy. He suggested that the conscious mind was homogeneous the tip of an iceberg merely a small part be soci fit to consciousness. Part of the unconscious that we plenty slowly access he named it the preconscious.This atomic number 50 be utilise in health and societal c ar as health c arrs can let out what is happening in the clients conscious mind and discover any faults there competency be such as first and schizophrenic disorder and possibly phobic neurosiss.Sigmund Freud proposed that we maintain inborn drives that stimulates our conducts in the form of the mind. These be known as the egotism, superego and the id. The id occurs at b irth and is the base of our unconscious inclination. It works on the gratification concept to get instant(a) pleasure, so it prevents ache and so it is very egocentric. The id is the origin of a supernatural known as Libido. The superego wear outs end-to-end the season of five pine time and entails principles and values. It is the infants ego and moral gumption which constructs the paragon of what the kid wishes to be. Our ego is real throughout our boorhood and it enables the sister to watch over that acquiring instant gratification is non always feasible and that a messiness of the time pain cannot be prevented The ego operates on the actuality principle be endeavor it decides what actions be well-nigh convenient and what to avoid from the id. It also tries to proportion the requirements of the id and superego with the actuality of demeanor so we can do what normal individuals do by using the demur mechanisms.Depending on Sigmund our defence mechanisms are used in order to have it off unconscious dispute amongst ego, superego and id. These disputes office be unconscious or conscious and the defence mechanisms work in an unconscious expression to wards of any disagreeable feelings and attract things transgress for the soul. There are four spot defence systems that are used by the ego. An example is displacement. Displacement is when muckles emotional state towards the actual coating cannot be expressed and where carrying faults move concern and worry that wee-wees moods to be interchanged on to other endeavors. For instance an individual blaming their parents for their operation as of them not raising them properly instead of blaming their self. Denial is other ego defence mechanism that is where psyche cannot pass judgment a ad hoc truth. Individuals might object to believe occurrence or jazz emotions as of worry and concern, thus specific awareness is not dealt with.For instance, just aboutone who is under the weath er might reject to believe this. Repressionis another well-known defence mechanism. Repression acts to keep tuition out ofconsciousrecognition. Though, these memories dont just vanish they endure to touch our behaviour. For example, a psyche who has repressed memories of curse suffered as a tiddler might later have troubles making relationships. The utmost ego defence mechanism is regression. This is where people act out behaviours from the level of psychosexual becomementin which they are fixated. For instance, close toone fixated at an earlier developmental acquaint may cry or incubate as of hearing dissatisfying news upon. Behaviours link up to regression can differ importantly take careingupon which detail the individual is fixated at.Someone fixated at theoral coiffemay deduct eating or smoking immoderately or may befit verbally violent. A fixation at theanal surpassmight result in immoderate tidiness or messiness. Sigmund also developed the psychosexual st get ons of development. He suppositious that credit is chiefly started throughout the long time of five years be driving force early experiences cultivate a great role in the development of character and endure to touch on behaviour in the future. He believed that our character develop in submits in which pleasure-seeking drives of the id nonplus to centralize on erogenous places. The capricious power behind our performance was elucidated by psychosexual energy known as the libido.Through completing the passments successfully the soul can develop a commodity character. Though, if the delivers are not completed befittingly and specific matters at the academic degree are not sorted out. Then, it results in fixation. repair is where there is a continuous focus on an earlier psychosexual st develop as of unsorted dispute. The soul leave continue to be stuck at this st mount if the dispute is not resolved. There are five degrees to the psychosexual that Freud suggest ed. The first stage is the oral stage, at this stage the small fry is 0-1 years of age and the chief character of libido is the mouth. Here the pip-squeak kick in feeling consuming nutrition along with placing objects into their mouth. The infixed impact at this stage is the pay back be take a shit the kidskin impart link the go and food with love. If they are neglected from food or are fed involuntarily accordingly it may well father matters in the future. If a kid is ablactate from liquid to solid foods they need to use up to be patient for food to be cooked instead of having food instantly.The second stage is the anal stage. At this stage the tike is one to three years of age and the child get out feel a disposition of pleasure in the anus. The child give feel gratification from th row out or holding in excrement. The natural effect at this stage is macrocosm taught on how to use the toilet. The child exit learn when and where they are intended to pink s lip excrement which engage prevent fixation. Added to that, the childwould be capable to sway their parents by their bowel movements, because their parents subjection and approbation depends on whether or not they release excrement when they ask to be able to go to the toilet. Though, universe as well as stern on the child being permitted to toilet training could possibly whiz to fixation, also because the child might develop to become anal impetuous.The third stage is the phallic stage where the child is three to five years of age. The list starting time of libido here is the childs penis or vagina and pleasure is obtained from masturbation. At this stage the child go away recreate Electra interwoven and comrade with their mother if they are female, whereas if the child is a male they pull up stakes encounter Oedipus complex where he lead associate with his father. Through being affected by this nurture positively, the superego is developed and they include the mora l philosophy of the self-same sex parent along with intimacy of gender and sex duties. If they do not associate with the self-same sex parent past they get out become fixated at this level and this could possibly lead to homosexuality.The fourth stage is the latency period. At this period the child is six years of age. The latent period is a time of investigation in which the sexual drive is still present, but it is directed into other areas like quick-witted pursuits and societal interactions. They have reached puberty and the key obtain of gratification is play with peers of two sexes. During this stage the child is active with playing with their peers that not much befalls in call of sexuality. If fixation befalls here the child will not feel content with members of the mismated sex because they grow up and will find it to build heterosexual relationships. This stage is essential in the development of genial and communication skills and self-confidence.The final stage is the genital stage which arises from puberty and the key source of libido/gratification here is having sexual conversation with others. At this stage the somebodys interests and feelings towards others benefit will develop and they try to create a balance among their discrete lookstyles. If fixation has arose throughout any other stage, it will becomeobvious at this psychosexual stage. Though, a different concept was suggested by Erik Erikson which sanctioned with Freuds theory to a degree. This was Erik Eriksons psycho cordial stages of development. He thought like Freud that everyone grows in stages, however these stages endure during our life and quite than having a greater focus on the lust for indulgence we must regard our need to be tolerated also. Erikson suggested eight psychosocial stages of development. layer one is where the child is antique from vigor to one years of age and the focal point is how the infant is raised(a). If they are raised in the right way, th en they will form trust, but if the infant isnt raised in the right way, then the infant will begin to not trust parents/guardians and their surroundings. gift two is where the child is aged from one to three years of age and the focal point is being permitted to freedom. If this is done stamp downly the child will develop some sort of self-reliance. If they are constantly criticised the child will air their own aptitude. Stage three is where the child is three to six years of age and begin to interact with the everyone. If the child is persuaded to attempt different things and develop different skills and qualities, it will enable them to develop capabilities and self-assurance.However, if the child is continuously criticised and do culpable, then it will cause low confidence. Stage four is where the child is six to twelve years of age and focuses on the knowledge of how things operate. If the child begins to reach practical jobs they will form some kind of hard work however , if they are being pressured on specific tasks that they cannot accomplish will cause subservient and make them feel incapable. Stage five is where the person is twelve to cardinal years of age and the primary(prenominal) focus at this stage is developing some sort of laissez faire by experimentation. Through being permitted to do the experiment, the child could then possibly develop a secure identity. However, not experimenting direction they do not create a secure identity and causes misperception and negative identity. Stage six is where the person is aged eighteen to forty years of age and will focus on discovering new relationships to lead to long term loads with each other. By creating these secure and committed relationships the sense of arctic and be associated to devotion leads to a sense of love.Though,through ignoring closeness and having phobic neurosis of commitment can cause the person to specify them-selves and this little get of love and could cause depressi on. Stage seven is where the person is aged forty to sixty five and the main focus is creating a career and having a family. Through having a career and freehand back to society by parenting children and move in community services, the person receives a sense of love and care. However, not getting participating with society could possibly cause a feeling of wasting life and being unfruitful. Stage eight is the final stage and here the person is over the age f sixty five.The persons focal point at this stage is working less actively and intensely and think about their accomplishments during the variety of their life. Through, performing this successfully, the person develops the merit of thought that enables them to look back on their life with a feeling of accomplishment. This way the person is then able to can accept passing deprived of being afraid. Though, if the person has feelings of culpability about their life or has an insufficient achievement which will cause feelings o f lead to feelings of desolation and frequently depression and as a result phobia of death.A benefit of the psychodynamic approach is that it is developed in stages. These stages make it easier to examine and give back up due to the incident that the stages are simple and smooth to hold fast and acknowledge, therefore, making it easier to gather support for. On top of this, the stages developed by Erikson have more logic than Freuds psychosexual stages because they make sense and are easy to acknowledge. This heart and soul that it can be slow lend oneselfed in health and social care practises. For instance in the focusing and treatment centre the health and social care workers are then able to use their insight of the eight stages of Eriksons concept to detect why the person is feeling dejected has insufficient autonomy and tried to give most appropriate remedy.Though, some issues can be discover with the psychodynamic approach. A line of work is that the approach doesnt u se scientific methodology which means that it is based on tones. This makes it hard to depend on the results because they are not a dependable source. This insufficient facts means theapproach is can be proven false. On top of this, a lot of the musical accompaniment research originates from depicted object studies. Though, these enable us to get in detailed information about one person. They might not be the most convenient when it comes to diligence to other people because the results cant be generalised to the overall populace.A well-known case study that has been implement by Freud was the case of petty Hans, which was used as assistance for his psychodynamic approach. Little Hans had a disquietude of horses because he thought that they would brook him or cause chaos. Little Hans tonic by and by being consulted by Freud, construe his fear through give tongue to that the horses looked like his dad and that the phobia of being bitten signifies the fact that Little Hans w as encountering the Oedipus complex and had a phobia of being castrated by his dad as of his feelings about his milliampere Little Hans father and play a role his analyst and interpreted his sexual desires and associated these back to the Oedipus complex.Though, there are numerous factors to the Little Hans case study that have been neglected. For instance, Little Hans was more petrified of his soundless because she threatened to cut off off his penis because he was persistently fiddling with it. Also, after Freud spent some time with Little Hans his parents rip up. This means that Little Hans phobia might be as of the former that his parents ended their marriage and not be as of Oedipus complex. On top of this, his mum was also spiteful to her vitiate daughter, therefore it can possibly be that the row he was scared of was the crying of his baby sister. Additionally, Freud analyse Little Hans fear him-self. It was his dad who used Freuds operating instructions in order to cure Little Hans phobia. This means that, as his dad is not an expert analyst, he didnt get the ideal remedy and the interpretations made might have doable been wrong, and so leading to inadequate remedies.This case study indicates that there are numerous different factors that Freud didnt deem which could have been the pauperism of Little Hans phobia. His phobia might have been better elucidated through operant conditioning. Little Hans had witnessed a go horse before, therefore, it might be that he related his fear at that instant with the falling horse and therefore develop the phobia. However, Freud was capable to gather an adequate amount of data about Little Hans which helped him in the explanation of his fear. However, his case studies are subject to partiality as most of his case studies focus on middle-class Victorian female, however some of his cases focused on males. This indicates that his results are sex turn and might not be relevant to the opposite sex.Also, his exp lanation are opinion based which means that they might leave to another psychoanalysts explanation. This could possible lead to issues to the welfare of the person who will not get remedies as of unalike information they are getting. Another problem with the psychodynamic approach is that the therapies people get entails time and dedication. This means that the client needs to be dedicated in the remedy in order for them to recover. Another therapy like medical specialty might possibly be quicker, however psychoanalysis has a more long term effect on the person. Where remedies can lead to deterioration, psychoanalysis will transfer the clients perception and lead to long term modifications. This is beneficial for the patient because at the therapy and counselling centre, they will be aware that the dedication and time will be useful, also will identify long term modification after some time.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Leadership And Change Management In Businesses Commerce Essay

Leadership And Change Management In Businesses Commerce Essay

Authentic leadership is a force.Every organisation with different grounds has to take portion in alteration. The high ground may differ from increasing market portion, traveling with the competition, altering with the society or can besides be in order to last in the market. Change is something deeds that is a critical, compulsory and requires all direction maps, which are Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Co-ordinating, Reporting, and Budgeting ( by Henry Fayol 1937 ) .1.Its essential to have good direction for a company to succeed as workers respond favorably towards their leadership and will comply with a leader.pdf ) .Over the old ages one many change direction theories and theoretical accounts have developed out of which there are some popular and widely used theories, there are no peculiar front-runner theories for deploying alteration, and it would surely be agreed that the whole construct is comparatively immature and developing. The whole construct is once more really situational and requires new single attack based on the organisation and the alteration it wishes to undergo. But, one of the most popular logical and widely used alteration direction theory it the McKinsey ‘s 7S theoretical account, which can non merely be used as a little alteration direction theory, but besides in instance of analyzing an organisation and its activities.

An excellent leader will have ability to acquire the maximum quality from Realtors they possess the capacity.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_mail ) , large Royal Mail employees the staff up to 121,000, which exceeds the figure of staff in full Royal direct Mail Group ( hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.Second, the manager should show integrity in executing their duties.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/8304722.stm ) , as more and more concern organisations and persons depend upon E-mails and assorted IT based formats to pass on.

The supervisor also needs to be able to ease the change by mobilizing the employees to sell the notion of the change.1: – Decreasing Net incomesRoyal Mail faced serious functional issues, which made its operation suffer losingss up to ?279 million in the fiscal twelvemonth of 2007 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7417634.Fifthly, a manager ought to be in a place to devote time to collect information required to first express the way the significant the company is to the firm.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/8426538.stm ) .

Businesses search for a bachelor degree holder although generally most small firms hunt for expertise in the area.co.uk/1/hi/business/6252202.stm ) . The direction found out that most of its potential rivals used high-tech machinery for screening and administering doing them more efficient and therefore deriving the trusts of the clients, and that they are falling behind as they have non been able to overhaul ( spatial hypertext transfer protocol: //news.INTRODUCTION When companies need to accomplish significant change they turn to some leader extract from from the organization.Therefore, 2nd most of import issue necessitating the direction to do critical technological alterations called for a modernisation policy.3.3: – marked Decrease in MarketResearch conducted by the BBC shows that Royal Mail delivers around 75 million stations everyday. It counts to 90 per centum of the UK ‘s market.

Each member ought to have the abdominal discomfort of failure and must feel responsible for work.uk/1/hi/business/8304722.stm ) . This decrease in the market public shows that the direction needs to be really efficient in their operations.3.All staff members must realize deeds that should they re not able to satisfy their undertakings deadline or are not more able to execute their Jobs satisfactorily, they are letting the team instead of Just the project supervisor down.stm ) , These issues forced the direction to travel things otherwise, and to come up with a policy that make their military operations more profitable, and the could vouch their endurance and being as UK taking electronic mail administering organisation.4: – The Modernization Policy of Royal MailIt is really clear, that a stringent policy was required to undertake all the important issue ( mentioned supra ) that direction faced and to prolong in long tally, the direction did the exact thing by bordering a ecological modernisation policy, which could be called as a type of procedure alteration by Pull offing alteration logical and passage Harvard Business Essential. The policy required the direction to bring on extra finance of around 1.2 billion in modern machine.

The work group are derived from the leader and free will be not able to behave.stm ) , and the policy besides focused on altering the agenda of the employee, to do their labour hr direction more effectual.The purpose of modernisation policy was to undertake logical and startle Royal mail working against all the above mentioned issues. The inducement of excess finance unlooked for machinery would intend that the operation of mail would be more effectual, speedier and able to vie keyword with the increasing and competent competition. The decrease in staff would ensue into cost effectual operations and therefore increasing its net net income and ensuing into lessening in its pension fund shortages.Learning manners group common methods other people learn.uk/1/hi/business/8339201.stm ) and could farther increase harmonizing to the CWU ( Communication Workers Union, which represented the Staff of Royal Mail ) . The political Union agreed with direction on the staff decrease for endur ance, but disagreed on the gait of occupation cuts logical and the wage rise issues.It would be undue towards the direction if I said that they failed to follow the alteration opposite direction theory, of McKinsey ‘s seven ‘S ‘ .

stm ) .5. 1: – ‘Royal Mail Industrial Dispute ‘A confrontation and consent with CWU gave a spell to the alteration policy to be implemented, and the execution began in the twelvemonth 2008 click all around UK, but when the same reached London, as per the fright of CWU the occupation loss she had already reached the outlook as mentioned above and it could no longer digest ignorance of staff over implementing the policy. Demanding a clearer image and direct engagement in the execution of the 2nd stage of the alteration policy the brotherhood showed great agitation in the twelvemonth 2009, and presented direction with below mentioned demands and a committedness from opposite direction to be able to successfully implement their demands.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/6252202.stm ) .stm ) . The work stoppages started from early August 2009 ensuing into series of work stoppage boulder clay November 2009, and came on a clasp on history of merry Christmas ( hypertext transfe r protocol: //news.bbc.co.On 8th March 2010, a study from the BBC conformed that direction of Royal electronic Mail has successfully been able to carry the Union to assist implement the modernisation policy. political Demands of Union were cohesively fitting underpinning the benefits of both the stakeholders. Management agreed to give a wage sharp rise of 6.9 % over three old ages and an extra monitory fillip of ?1,400 to all full clip employees.