Saturday, January 26, 2019
AQA AS Philosophy Reason and Experience Key Points Essay
There ar different types of companionship acquaintance, ability and mesmerismal friendship. Theories of association discussed here are about propositional knowledge. Knowledge is not the same as belief. Beliefs scum bag be mistaken, but no-one can know what is false. Knowledge is not the same as true belief, either. True beliefs may not be justified, but can be believed without evidence. To be knowledge, a belief mustinessiness be justified. Rationalism learns that we can make believe synthetic a priori knowledge of how things are outside the intellect. Empiricism denies this.It holds that all a priori knowledge is completely of analytic propositions. Do all ideas derive from common sense project? Locke signals that the mind at birth is a tabula rasa in that respect are no inseparable ideas, which Locke defines as ideas comprise in the mind from birth. Locke moots that there is no justice that everyone, including idiots and children, assents to so no truth is born(p). Rationalists define innate ideas as ideas (concepts or propositions) whose content cant be gained from experience, but which are triggered by experience.Locke and Hume argue that all concepts are derived from sense experience, from impressions of sensation or reflection. They claim that simple concepts are copies of impressions complex concepts are created out of simple concepts by combining and abstracting them. One argument for innate concepts is to challenge the empiricist to present how a detail complex or abstract concepts, for example, a tangible intent, is say to be derived from experience. If it cannot be, and it is used by children, then this is a reason to count it is innate.Are all claims about what exists in the end grounded in and justified by sense experience? Hume argues that all a priori knowledge is of relations of ideas, and so analytic. All knowledge of synthetic propositions, matters of item, is a posteriori. It depends either on present experien ce or causal inference, which relies on past experience. Our knowledge of matters of fact that relies on induction can unless be probably never proven. almost rationalists, for example, Descartes, try to show that we can use a priori scholarship and deductive argument to demonstrate what exists.The core of the idea of rational apprehension is that you can see the truth of a claim just by thinking about it. Descartes argues that sense experience on its own cannot sustain what exists how can we know that all sense experience is not a deception cause by an evil demon? He argues that he cannot doubt his own existence, and that the mind can exist without the body. Descartes argues for the existence of the somatogenic world by first arguing for the existence of God. From God not being a deceiver, it follow that our sense experience in global cant be completely mistaken so they physical world exists.Conceptual stratagems and their philosophical implications Thinkers who defend t he idea of conceptual schemes lots argue that there are two distinguishable elements to our experience the in mouldation of the sense, and then the interpretation of these data by a set of concepts. Some argue that human beings moderate formulated different conceptual scheme which are not translatable into each early(a). From the same sense experience, they form different views of the world. Because we must use concepts to formulate truths, we can argue that truths are relative to conceptual schemes.Or more accurately, nearly truths can solo be provinced in certain conceptual schemes and not others, and there is no one conceptual scheme which we can use to state all truths. Do all ideas derive from sense experience? II One objection to the empiricist theory of the origin of concepts is that there are some complex concepts, for example, knowledge and beauty that cannot be analysed in terms of simpler concepts. A second objection is that some simple ideas, for example, a parti cular step of blue, dont have to be derived from sense impressions.Empiricists can act in two ways all ideas could be derived from sense experience or some ideas are exceptions to the rule that all ideas are derived from sense experience, but these exceptions are derived from ideas that are derived from sense experience. Another objection is that it is not potential to derive any concepts from experience, because in order to form concepts, we must make judgements of similarity and difference to classify experiences. But we can unless make these judgements if we already have the concepts.Defenders of innate ideas maintain that we innately have very specific capacities for forming particular ideas, and these ideas count as innate. Suggestions for the origin of innate ideas include evolution, God, and a previous existence. Are all claims about what exists ultimately grounded in and justified by sense experience? II Rationalists claim that we have synthetic a priori knowledge either innately or through rational intuition Plato argues that many particular objects can have the same property, for example, beauty.These properties can exist independently of the particular objects, as shown by the fact that is we destroy all beautiful things, we havent destroyed beauty. These properties are instances of the Forms. Plato argues that innate concepts are our knowledge of the Forms, from a previous existence. Unless we had such(prenominal) innate memories, we wouldnt be able to classify experience use concepts. Descartes argues that he cannot doubt his existence. We can object that he cannot know he exists tho that thoughts exist. Descartes also argues that the mind can exist without the body.We can object that just because he can conceive that this is possible doesnt show that this is possible. Both these arguments and the objections use a priori reasoning. Hume objects that a priori reasoning can only establish analytic truths. Nietzsche argues that reasoning is not , in fact, something independent that reveals the truth, but is grounded on assumptions about value. Metaphysical theories are the result of attempts to defend a particular way of understanding the world, one that rests on the false assumption that goodish and bad are opposites.The verification principle claims that a statement only has meaning if it is either analytic or empirically verifiable. However, the principle itself is uncomplete analytic nor empirically verifiable. Rationalists argue that mathematics is an example of synthetic a priori knowledge. Empiricists argue that mathematics is analytic. Is certainty confined to introspection and the tautological? Descartes argues that what we can doubt is not certain enough to be knowledge.However, we can argue that certainty and justification are not the same thing, and that while knowledge needs to be justified, we need an argument to show that it must be certain. Certainty can refer to a subjective feeling, to a proposition bei ng necessarily true or to the impossibility of doubting a proposition. Empiricists claim that analytic truth is the only kind of necessity truth. Rationalists argue that there are synthetic a priori truths that are also necessary. A necessary truth is certain.Claims about mental state, based on introspection, may also be certain for the person whose mental states they are. Whether any other claims are certain depend on whether there are necessary synthetic a priori truths. Conceptual schemes and their philosophical implications II Kant argues that experience is of objects, and asks how it is possible for experience to be intelligible in this way, not a confuse buzz. He answers that what makes experience possible are certain concepts, which he calls categories. These categories in concert express the pure thought of an object.One such year is causality. This enables us to distinguish the temporal order of our perceptions from the temporal order of objects. Kant argues that to bla b out of concepts interpreting sensation is misleading. Our sensory experience is always already conceptualised as experience of objects. Two implications of Kants theory are that the structure of the occasional world of objects is defined by our a priori concepts and that we cannot know anything about how populace is completely independent of how we think of it.