Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Corporate Social Responsibility Essay -- CSR Essays

In recent years, companies ar becoming socially responsible and now stakeholders almost expect a company to have CSR policies. on that pointfore, in twentieth century, corporate social responsibleness (CSR) became an important development in public life (Barnett, ND).Corporate social righteousness is defined as the ways in which an organisation exceeds the minimum obligations to stakeholders qualify through regulation and corporate governance (Johnson, Schools and Whittington, N.D cited in March, 2012). Stakeholders can be defined as those individuals or groups who depend on the organisation to see their own goals and on whom, in turn, the organisation depends (Johnson, Schools and Whittington, N.D cited in March, 2012). There are many purposes for this essay, the first purpose is to descried the advert principles of corporate social responsibility and explain their importance for stakeholders. Secondly, is to show how far this company follows those principles in graze to b e accountable to at least troika of its stakeholders. In this essay, three stakeholders, environment, customers and employees will be evaluated respectively and the key principles of the stakeholders will be examined.There is a link between corporate social responsibility and the key principles of the stakeholders, which a company should follow to be responsible to its stakeholders. The first stakeholder is environment and the key principle used for it is not damage the environment for example, recycling, dealings correctly with their wastes and emissions. The second stakeholder is the employees. The key principle for the employees is companies providing safe and health works conditions for their staff. Moreover, the employees earn an appropriate salary for ... ...012- Starbucks. 2011 Recycling & Reducing Waste purchasable from http//www.starbucks.com/responsibility/environment/recyclingAccessed on 11th of March 2012- Starbucks Newsroom. 2010 Starbucks struggles with lessen environmental impacts. Available from http//news.starbucks.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=472Accessed on 11th of March 2012- Starbucks Newsroom. 2010 Starbucks to Provide supererogatory Lower Calorie Options this January. Available from http//news.starbucks.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=313Accessed on 11th of March 2012- The reuse times. 2011 Starbucks steps up to the plate addresses pollution allegations by setting up a recycle process. Available from http//therecycletimes.com/2011/04/starbucks-steps-up-to-the-plate-addresses-pollution-allegations-by-setting-up-a-recycle-process/Accessed on 11th of March 2012

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Business and Research Project Essay

JC Penny has been running successfully for beside to 90 years. Most entrepreneurs and managers face the same dilemmas at times. The choices one makes argon the basis for his or her bon ton success. The CEO of JC Penny Ron Johnson was faced with umteen focal point dilemmas. The first of many dilemmas that Ron Johnson was faced with was to innovate or preserves JC Penny. Innovation is important, but one should overly focus on tonic applications and new markets as well. However, the revenues of triggers are in the future. One needs also to get the maximum out of ones sure business. gibe an article published by Forbes Ron Johnson did not try and solving the sincere problem with JC Penny. Sales fell some 25%. The stock dropped 50% He spent lavishly laborious to remake the brand.He modernised the logo, upped the TV ad spend, spruced up neckcloths and implemented a more(prenominal) accordant pricing strategy. But that all was designed to help JC Penney competes in traditiona listic brick-and-mortar retail. Against traditional companies like Wal-Mart, Kohls, Sears, etc (Hartung, 2014). If the leader or manager does not clothe there comes a time when the current business declines without new innovation to take over JC Penny revenues. If a manager invests too much, it whitethorn end up endangering the continuity of the current business. According to Joshua Kennon J.C. Penney saw gross revenue fall from $19.903 billion in 2007 to $12.985 billion in 2013.This caused the firm to go from a pre-tax profit of $1.792 billion to pre-tax losses of $1.536 billion, a staggering shed of $3.328 billion. Dividends were slashed, book value destroyed. There were rumors the company was surviving by pushing payable bills and hoarding cash (Kennon, 2013).The purpose of learning squad Cs research is to identify the most important factors to customers that are considering rat at J.C. Penney. This statement speaks to the researchers attention and states goal or objective o f the research. This statement will evaluate errors that were made J.C. Pennys top management, putting the company into a very vulnerable predicament with the core customers. The factors that will be considered are directly associated with management errors much(prenominal) asMisreading what shoppers want- coupons, sales price/clearance itemsNot exam the ideas in advance- assuming the culture was the same as other companies alien the core customersMisreading the JC Penney brandNot respecting the JC Penney company overallFrom these errors the team will provide research questions to include in the paper, gather the tuition the is related to the customer most recent shopping experience with the company to develop a proposed research plan to address the most management dilemmas.Draft of Research QuestionsLearning team C intends to research the reasons J.C. Penney had a decline in customer core base and sales which closely led to the demise of the company. This research will be conducted via lot with the draped of possibly salvaging the creditability of the company. Our learning will provide surveys to adults that have shopped J.C. Penny each online or in the instal within the last two years. The survey questions used would supply management with opportunities to test potential marketing strategies to strike sales and retain the companys initial core customer base. LTC will provide the following questions to gather data for research in the surveyWhat is the age group/gender of the participantHow far from rest home will he or she be willing to drive to the storeWhat is the importance of coupons and sales price/clearance itemsHow frequent does the participant shop online or in the storeHow important is the brand name that is provided by the companyHow important is the atmosphere of the store (i.e. Arizona, IZOD, Dockers, etc)How important is the culture of store (i.e. is food courts or specialty boutiques important) After compiling a more precise list of question to provide for the survey, we will rank the factors from to the lowest degree to greatest importance to determine the decision making process for J.C. Penney current dilemma.ConclusionEventually, JC Penny did fire Ron Johnson and rehired the previous CEO Mike Ullman, who stills faces self-aggrandising challenges. JC Penny has posted sales drops and losses in its first terzetto quarters. As JC Penny attempts to recover from its dilemmas from the period in which it alienated consumers, and enraged its employees, its new CEO Mike Ullman, is making headway in trying to purge corporate ranks and bring the customers back to shopping at JC Penny. In business leaders or managers all face some challenges that if left over(p) unaddressed such as JC Penny dilemma can massively affect the business. The good news is that there is now a solving in place to help JC Penny return to being successful.ReferencesHartung, A. (2014). ii Wrongs Wont Fix JC Penney. Retrieved from htt ps//ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cwe/citation_generator/web_01_01.asp Kennon, J. (2013). The Collapse of J.C. Penney What Caused It and Can It Be Fixed?. Retrieved from http//www.joshuakennon.com/the-collapse-of-jc-penney-what-caused-it-and-can-it-be-fixed/

Monday, January 28, 2019

How to End a Relationship Essay

end dose a family with your henchman is never an easy intimacy to do, exactly if one finds themselves unhappy in the family relationship than the ruff function to do would be to part panaches. It is important to not force yourself to be in a relationship if you are no longer happy. Ending the relationship target be better in swan to reverse further issues and heart ache. You owe it to yourself and your partner to call it quits if things arent working out. Ending a relationship can be difficult, but by utilizing these four essential steps thinking things through, arrange to learn up in person, be honest, and being sympathize with and understanding, you can economic aid the dish out for some(prenominal) you and your partner.First, choose sure to think things through and ensconce if ending the relationship is what you really want to do. You give need to make sure to avoid impulsive actions that can lead you to hasty decisions that you provide end up regretting. be sure to give yourself time by and by a heated issue/argument in order to showtime thinking clearly. Once you smell more relaxed a arguing of pros and cons can be extremely helpful in dishing you through this difficult decision. magical spell making your list, it is always important not to over think almost the different scenarios and make sure to keep it simple. The list compiled should be apply to help hurtle things into perspective and cease a clear aspect about(predicate) the next phase that is needed.Second, give your partner the courtesy and repute of ending the relationship with them in person. By being able to sit around down face to face with your partner the communication of feelings and concerns/issues will live evident both in verbal tones and body gesture. If possible, avoid opposition up around special days holidays, birthdays, anniversaries, because it would not be unobjectionable to ruin those days for them. It is also important to avoid locations that were of importance to both of you or overly crowded areas. Even though you already pick out how the end of your concourse will turn out, it is helpful to have a conversation to allow both persons the opportunity to release feelings. This might be the last time the two of you might be together so closure and honesty is needed for both of you to be able to go away forward.Third, honesty is the most important foundation of each relationship, regardless of the produce of the relationship. It is important for you to stand out the conversation and jump right into the reason for the meeting without beating around the bush. Be as honest, concise, and to the point as possible. Make sure to complete your full thought before allowing your partner the mishap to speak. Create a positive, open environment in which you both feel at ease in saying anything that needs to be tell in that moment. It is important at this step to list issues/concerns that you had with the relationship and this is where your pros/cons list can be useful. Make sure to be honest about the bad times, but also the good times as well. Choosing your dustup wisely will allow you to give constructive criticism on issues, being effective in getting your point across, and at the same(p) time making sure to be gentle and considerate of your partners feelings.Ultimately, being compassionate and understanding will allow both of you to be helpful to each other to ease through the process of ending the relationship. Both of you will be experiencing hurt feelings, but in order to end things amicably you will want to do your best to be there for the other person in the moment. If needed, in the moment, be there to offer a shoulder to lean on for your partner. Guidelines regarding any further contact with each other should also be put in place so that it can assist with this new variation for your partner. Let them know that things will be okay and in collectible time they will see that the relation ship had to turn out the way it did for the benefit of both of you.At the end of a relationship you will have many emotions that will need to be dealt with in order to move forward. Knowing that the relationship has come to an end is only the start of the long process ahead. Allow yourself time to think about the relationship and whether it can be salvaged. When the relationship can no longer be fixed create a moment to speak to your partner in person. Going into that meeting you should be prepared to be honest and allow your partner to be honest with you as well. At the end of the relationship you and your partner might not be at the same point of the ending and it is important and helpful to assist them by being compassionate and understanding of their needs. By following these steps you can help revolution through the end of the relationship and allow for growth that can assist both partners in their future relationships.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Employment Communication Essay

Employment discourse is the communication between employees in an organization which is give tongue to to be the most essential aspect that should be put into term for a better coordination among the taskforces within an organization, this means that the employees ar put in a position to communicate with their employers either in a orchis stylus or informal way to pass information. by this the employees argon enabled to express their grievances, health matters, tempting milieu and legal matters through communication to their employers.A healthy and supportive work environment is found to be the most crucial factor in creating robust art births. intelligence Individuals with strong employment relationships tend to eat helpful and friendly co-workers, arouse work, assess their study as both healthy and safe, ar support in balancing work with their personal life, and have reasonable railway line demands. High levels of employee trust and commitment argon linked to pe rceptions that their employer cares about them.If the employees are not satisfied with these aspects then they can call for a coming upon with the managerial personnel and this is said to be a formal way of communicating with the authority. (Palmer and Akin, 2006) Communication is excessively used in the delivering of the resources needed to do the job well this can be done through the training of training, equipment and information thus indicating to employees the firms commitment to employees needs who so required to accomplish their tasks. Resources are also likely to make workloads more manageable and enable workers to be more productive in their duties.Through training one can communicate to the employees on what is expected to be done to accomplish their tasks and the policies required to accomplish all tasks. (Dale, 2001) Employment relationships clearly matter for case-by-cases and employers. The strong employment relationships positively influence job satisfaction, learning use and development, workplace morale, and worker absenteeism. In general, strong employment relationships kick in to the quality of work life and the performance of the organization to be of spirited esteem.On the other hand, perceived problems with pay and job security are more definitive influences on willingness to work efficaciously than it is for the strength of employment relationships (Palmer and Akin, 2006) Strong employment communication is associated with the more effective use of serviceman resources and skills. The employees who have strong employment communication have more opportunities in their job to develop and use their skills and abilities in a free environment that they have ways of expressing their thoughts and feelings.This supports the creation of human capital that is so important for both individual well being and healthy organizations goals. . (Yeung, 1997) In this event we find that this communication is usually affected by many factors mu ch(prenominal) as the organizational change which is said to may affect the employees negatively bringing up informal way of expressing their disapproval. Downsizing and restructuring are associated with lessen levels of trust, commitment, communications and worker influence. The employees may down their tools in protest or may also resist change through strike.The changes should be effectively communicated before they are put in place so that the employees are not caught unaware of the changes being effected. Employers or the authority should take confide to convince the employers on the benefits the changes will put in place from the be organization structure, policies and procedures. (Yeung, 1997) Conclusion There are several ways to organize this communication problems being experienced between the employers and employees, but first we have to create an employment relationship that name and addresses this consequents.Employment relationships must be created so that communi cation is enhanced. The strength of employment relationships matters for individuals. This puts trust, commitment, communication and influence on their key of job selection criteria hence there is not much that individual workers can do short of changing employers or becoming ego employed to improve their work environment. Those employees in weak employment relationships passion better communication fairness, respect, recognition, and a more supportive work environment.They also need more opportunities for meaningful input and participation. These are the be intimates they want employers to address first. The employers have no doubt that creating a supportive and healthy work environment nurtures positive employment relationships. This entails looking into the physical, social and psychological aspects of the workplace everything from workloads to respect and the resources needed to do an effective job. The most important issue is how the work is organized.Trust is associated wi th restructuring and downsizing also low levels of commitment. Most workplaces are organized to give more scope for participation so as to have stronger employment relationships. The content of the job is also an important issue especially providing skilled and interesting tasks so that the goals of the organization can be effectively communicated. Policies and measures should be put in place to address this communication issues so that the employees grievances or conditions can be addresses at ease.With policies the employees issues will certainly reach to their employers who will know how to address them than release to extreme reactions like calling for strikes or the workers having to lay down tools. The stringent consequences or measures put in place will also anticipate them from resolving the issues in a violent way but do it in a formal way. For example employees may face a sack from work if he goes contrary to this ways of addressing the issues.A comparative perspective on work points toward the goal of creating cohesive, prosperous, and personally supportive workplaces and communities through effective communication means. We can therefore conclude that defining characteristics of a good job, the qualities of trust, commitment, communication and influence is important means for employment relationship between the employer and his employee. Thus both formal and informal ways should be set up to ease communication and flow of information in employment is an organization or business.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Ergonomics And The Workplace Health And Social Care Essay

The pattern of refuge in shape has seen unbelievable progresss as clip has gone, due to advancement in engineering, although in that location is still broad sum of challenges that comes in signifier of hurts and unwellnesss ( Hopwood and Thompson, 2006 ) . This is where biotechnologies comes to play a function in doing the written report military position honorable for activities that would be carried forbidden by the employee. Biotechnologies draws on many an(prenominal) subjects in its survey of worlds and their environments, including anthropometry, biomechanics, mechanical technology, industrial technology, industrial number, kinesiology, physiology and psychological intuition ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) .Unsafe, unhealthy, uncomfortable or in expeditious state of affairss at cultivate or in mundane support argon avoided by taking archives of the physical and physiological capablenesss and restrictions of worlds ( Dul and Weerdmeester, 1993 ) . Human wellness and safety is at optimum scope when the peeplace environmental parametric quantities are suited for the employee ( Story, 2010 ) . from each(prenominal) one twelvemonth, ill designed merchandises and functionplaces account for 1000s of hurts and skyrocketing price. That is why biotechnologies the gentle factor in merchandise and defecateplace design is fast going a study concern of makers ( Gross, 1995 ) .This study is ab bring pop out how is round u maunder and proper conceptualization on the employment of biotechnologies to mundane workplace arsehole forestall life endangering unwellnesss, uncomfortableness, accidents, and how employers hatful salvage money by bowdlerise toss off costs related to issues like actors compensation, absenteeism and bend over, as it makes operations more than efficient by making work topographical back breaker designs with fewer mistakes and give way on workplace user friendliness ( MacLeod, 1995 ) , with the end of cut downing musculoskeletal uncomfortableness, addition work productiveness, expertness and comfort, as an employee who is more well-heeled is more productive ( Meriano and Latella, 2008 ) .1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study is to cognize what biotechnologies is all round and how it can be incorporated into the wellness and safety sector.The aims of this study are Reduce opportunitys factors associated with ill designed work carryss and,To plan a workplace that is suited for the human essential fertilizer structure instead than the human positive structure accommodating to workplace.To be able to place, measure, control and supervise the occupational wellness impales/agents in the workplace which whitethorn do ill-health to employees.2.0 LITERATURE go off2.1 WHAT IS ergonomicS?Biotechnologies is the scientific discipline of suiting workplace conditions and occupation contracts to the capablenesss of the workings population, it tends to look into work related commercial enterprises th at poses a impale of musculoskeletal upsets and ways of relieving them ( Cohen et al, 1997 ) . It is besides the applied scientific discipline that is devoted to supply comfort, efficiency and safety into the design of aspires in the work topographic presage ( Shelly and Vermaat, 2010 ) , ergonomic intercession can profit both employer and employee ( Meriano and Latella, 2008 ) .The International Ergonomics tie-up bushels biotechnologies as fol confusedsBiotechnologies ( or human factors ) is the scientific subject concerned with the judgment of interactions among worlds and other elements of a corpse, and the profession that applies theory, rules, informations and methods to plan in order to perfect human wellbeing and overall system public presentation.A heavy(a) figure of factors play a function in biotechnologies these include organic structure position and motion, environmental factors, information and operation every eccentric person good as work organisation. Biot echnologies differs from other Fieldss by its interdisciplinary bang and applied nature ( Dul and Weerdmeester, 1993 ) .The benefits of biotechnologies include occupation satisfaction and enhanced worker motive, added problem-solving capablenesss, and greater credence of alteration. Involving staffs can help to place occupation jeopardies, point ways to command these jeopardies and working with commission in make up ones minding how to set this control in topographic point.2.2 WHO IS AN ERGONOMIST?An Ergonomist is one who has equal intelligence of the relation between worlds wellness and worlds public presentation ( Schlick, 2009 ) taking into context the occupation, equipment apply and information utilize ( hypertext transfer protocol //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergonomics ) . Harmonizing to Dul and Weerdmeester, 1993, the captain ergonomists can work for the governments ( statute law ) , developing establishments ( universities and colleges ) , investigate musical composit ions, the dish industry ( consultancy ) and production sector ( occupational wellness services, forces sections, design sections, research sections, etc. ) , they besides wrote that the ergonomist highlights the countries where ergonomic cognition is indispensable, provides ergonomic guidelines and advises interior decorators, buyers, direction and employees, on which are more acceptable systems.2.3 HISTORY OF ergonomicsscience of Ergonomics dates back to 1717, when Bernadino Ramazzini, male parent of occupational medical specialty, speculated on factors within the work environment that contributed to his patients unwellnesss, he described violent and unsystematic gestures, dead set position and tonic telephone line on the muscleman as factors that contributed to musculoskeletal strivings in his patients ( Meriano and Latella, 2008 ) .However, in the United Kingdom, biotechnologies started in 1917 in World War I when the Department of Scientific and Industrial research and the Medical Research Council were asked to look into industrial conditions, peculiarly of weaponries workers, this led to the constitution of Industrial Fatigue Research Board who performed research on in a higher place subject in 1929 because of the expanded range of work ( hours of work, preparation, accidents, illuming and airing, and design of the machinery. In 1949, the Ergonomics Research Society was established at a merging held by a little group of research workers at the Admiralty this do the society the earliest to be formed in the universe ( Meister, 1999 ) .2.4 level-headed CONTROL OF ERGONOMICSThe practice of law serves as a critical correspond in complex societal scene as it provides criterions or guidelines that define unacceptable and acceptable human behavior. A breach in this canon can be considered misdemeanor of the jurisprudence and the transgressor could confront civil or condemnable punishments the legal system of every governmental legal power and at ev ery degree of organized society must incessantly accommodate to altering demands, so at that place has and will be a go oning gush of commanding Torahs. It is for this ground that the legal system is based on constructs of human mistakes. Liability bar or extenuation is the turning away of mistake by probe, analysis, rating, hazard appraisal, disciplinary action, and baulk redresss. The chance of a scientist or applied scientist holding contact with jurisprudence is high, it is wise to go familiar with the country of web ( Marras and Karwowski, 2006 ) , as there are a myriad of functions that can be played in province or federal common jurisprudence actions, workers compensation instances, allegations of statutory misdemeanors, arbitrations or mediations, authorities bureau hearings, or commendations affecting Occupational arctic and Health Administration ( OSHA ) , Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) ( Vinal, 1999 ) . Harmonizing to Health and precaution at Work ( HASAW ) Act 1974, which is statute law, it states that it is the responsibility of the employer to enamor out a hazard appraisal in the work topographic point. harm to this is regarded as a breach in the jurisprudence and has its effects.2.5 METHODS OF UNDERTAKING ERGONOMIC ASSESSMENTThe cardinal end of human-centered technology is to fit human features such as organic structure size, strengths and failings, and capablenesss and penchants with the relevant properties of equipment, undertakings, and process ( Kroemer, 2006 ) .The polar methods utilise in the appraisal of biotechnologies include I Physical methodsII Psycho physiological methodsIII Behavioural and Cognitive MethodsIV team up methodsV Environmental methodsVI Macroergonomics methods( Stanton et al. , 2005 )All these methods make usage of the side by side(p) techniques listed below Measurement squadsAnthropometric techniquesMeasuring energetic capablenesssMeasuring muscular tissue strengthMeasuring mental work loadMeasur ing lot capablenesssSystematic assemblage of informationThe ideal field appraisal tools used should possess the undermentioned properties Predictive the tool should supply prognostic step of hazard of musculoskeletal hurt,Robust can be used in any work state of affairs,Cheap tool can be available at minimum pecuniary cost,Non-invasive should non impact when worker performs or procedure work flow,Quick appraisal could be performed rapidly,Easy to utilize tool could be used with minimum preparation,( Marras and Karwowski, 2006 ) .3.0 METHODOLOGY3.1 INTEGRATED ERGONOMICS ASSESSMENT FOR THE WORK STATIONFor the intent of this appraisal to be done, some(prenominal) protocols would hold to be met. The first thing that would be done is to start out a work position that can be used to transport out an ergonomics appraisal, and the Help Desk in the Learning Resource concenter ( LRC ) has been selected. A proposed meeting was set up with the Manager of the LRC to acquire license to trans port out the appraisal, the director approved of this and forwarded necessary messages to the supervisors in the LRC who helped in finishing the undertaking. A confidentiality questionnaire was handed to one of the supervisors, which was filled and returned and would be used as a point of mention in the consequences. Using anthropometric method of ergonomic hazard appraisal, beat of the work berth would be taken utilizing a measurement tape and images snapped for farther grounds of the work station for biotechnologies assessment. Ergonomics appraisal on the work station would be done on the footing of the undertaking carried out. The undertaking carried out in the Help Desk in the LRC involves assisting pupils use the com attributeing machine systems to turn up books in the library and assisting to set up books in shelves. For this ground, there is the demand to jump between sitting down and standing. Below is a chart that shows a program on how the work would be carried out.Obs ervation misadventure IdentificationBiotechnologies Assessment EvaluationHazard ValidationControl and invigilateReappraisalChart 1 Flow Plan on the methodological analysis of the ergonomic appraisal.4.0 RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONThe peculiar work station selected for this ergonomics was carefully observed for the different undertaking carried out to see if there is any job associated with the work topographic point. Anthropometric technique was used to transport out this work by acquiring measurings of the work topographic point.4.1 Observation The aid desk offered aid in transporting out this work aft(prenominal) permission was granted by the Manager of the LRC. Looking carefully at the direction work was done and inquiring inquiries from the staff being monitored were specify into consideration, besides exposure were taken to besides acquire a egest image of how the employee carries out the undertaking. flesh 1 A Staff transporting out her responsibilities on a Ocular Display Unit.4.2 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION risk of infection designation was obtained chiefly by inquiring inquiries from the employee on the work station, doing usage of a questionnaire and sing the work station for possible activities that may do wellness upset ( s ) and affect the employee. Health and Safety at Work ( HASAW ) Act 1974 demands that the employer should do certain that employers carry out a hazard appraisal in the work environment to guarantee safety of staffs. See consequence in table 1 below. hedge 1 Hazard Identification on the aid desk.HazardHazard facetImpact/ Effect flummoxHunched position ( ensue from fatigue and long hours of working )Stiffness of the dorsum, cervix, and carpus from working likewise long on the optic Display UnitAssortment of wellness jobs, like caved shoulders, muscular instabilities, rounding of the upper dorsum and a aim to tilt forrard while walking.Incidence of lower dorsum upsets. performanceDistortion of the waist, cervix, stretching the manus and retention in that place for a long clip ( striving musculuss in the manus )Pain and strain on cervix musculuss and waist.Stress on musculuss of the weaponries while stretching causes fatigue duty of the arm musculus.Ocular Display Unit ( VDU ) , keyboard and mouse.Fixed place of the cervix when staring at the VDU, and emphasis on fingers from excessively a lot typewriting, writhing and flexing of the carpus when managing the mouse.Makes the employee aware of some oculus defects that he/she was non sensible of. Striving of the weaponries to make the mouse and distortion of the carpus to acquire to the keyboard and catch the mouse.4.3 ERGONOMIC ASSESSMENTBiotechnologies appraisal on the work station showed that the design of the station has a moderate mark as it accommodates the employee and has a low hazard degree. Below is a tabular array of the entire ergonomic hazard factor and how it was derived.Table 2 Ergonomic Work Position Evaluation.Assessed by Igho Date14/12/20 10Ergonomic Evaluation put on the line Factor Static Points Comments/ActionWork Positions ( Siting )0 platinums 2 platinums 4 platinumsv if 20 secs +X 3 if inactiveNeck ( crease ) flexing top dog frontwardvv6ModerateShoulders ( acme cubituss )vv6ModerateWrists/Handsvv6ModerateBack ( seam ) flexing frontward at the hipsvv12HighHiking Shouldersvv0 haplessWrithing ( falsely with pess nonmoving )vv0LowTable 3 projection factor EvaluationUndertaking FactorsPoints AwardedMuscle forceLow v Moderate High0VibrationLow v Moderate High0 sparkleGood v Fair Poor0Workplace Temperature at ease v Warm/Cool Hot/Cold0Table 4 Hazard Factor sum on the work station. gamble Factor entire Risk Factor Points Total Comments/Action0 platinums 2 platinums 4ptsWork Positions0 7 8 15 16 pts+= 4High ( 8-12 )Undertaking factors0 8 9 15 16 pts+= 0= 4Moderate ( 4 7 )Raising0 7 8 13 14 pts+= 0Low ( 0 3 )Table 5 Key Descriptor musical scaleFormConsequenceControl0-3LowLittle or no ailments of musculus a chings and strivingsTaking of short clip interruptions4-7ModerateStress and weariness on musculuss which is tolerableChoice of an employee to supervise how undertakings are being carried out8-12HighWork Musculoskeletal upset, inactive burden on musculuss leads to odious weariness on musculussDecrease of work that can do musculoskeletal upset and preparation of staffs to go more cognizant of ergonomic hazard factors related to musculoskeletal upsets.Below is a study on the work station used in the LRC, measured in centimeter.48cm 24cm96cm 48cm 72cmFloorFig 1 Sketch and measuring of the work station.The study above can be compared to the British criterion dimension to cognize if the mensural work station meets up with the criterion.Table 6 Work topographic point measuring compared with British Standard DimensionMeasured Work StationBritish Standard Dimension ( 5th 95th Percentile ( associate Population 19 65 year )Popliteal acme48cm44cm thigh Clearance23cmTable Height ( Popliteal height + Siting Elbow tallness )72cm68.5cmSiting Shoulder Height Position57cm59cmBack deviation48cmHazard confirmationBased on the production of a well ergonomically equipped work station, a good control and reappraisal of the work station, and everything put in order, information and preparation of employees there may still be a job that can present as a menace to the work topographic point. This can be seen in workers habit sitting frontward on the chair, sitting in the center of the chair, tilting on arm remainder and back remainder, weaponries resting on the tabular array are some illustrations of employees habit, and this can ensue in intervertebral phonograph record hurts and back jobs as the musculuss of the dorsum are easy stressed.CONTROL AND MONITORINGTo command occupational wellness and safety hazards, break outment of public presentation and benefits in work topographic points in order to extinguish or minimise hazard to employees and other interested parties expose d to hazards associated with its activities, it is necessary to implement, keep and continually better occupational wellness and safety in the work topographic point.The pursual can be used to command and supervise ongoing activities and undertakings in the work topographic point Avoid Unnatural Position flexing the luggage compartment/head sideways is more harmful than flexing forwardThe on the job country should be located so that it is at the best surpass from the eyes of the operator.Hand clasp, stuffs and tools should be arranged in such a manner that the most frequent motions are carried out with the cubituss set and upright to the organic structure.Manipulations can be made easier by utilizing supports under the cubituss, forearms or custodies. Padded/soft warm stuffs that can be adjustable to suite people of different sizes.It is indispensable that the workplace should be suited to the organic structure size and mobility of the operator/employee, since neutral/natural po sitions and motions are a necessary portion of efficient work.Neck and caput position caput and cervix should non be dead set frontward by more than 30 grades when the bole is vertical, else weariness and problems may happen.4.6 ReappraisalHaving seen that ergonomically, the work station is tolerable, and staffs have been informed on how to place themselves whilst working, there is need to canvass work pattern every three months to guarantee and implement that the manner of working is still in topographic point to avoid hurts that may hold built up with clip.4.7 Recommendationafter mensurating the work station and comparing with the British criterion measuring, it is recommended that the chair ( adjustable ) should be adjust to suit the user so as to acquire the comfortability needed in order non to emphasize and strive musculuss in the dorsum and pess. The mouse and Visual display unit should be ergonomically put in topographic point to the comfort of the operator, to cut down te nseness and strain to the eyes, custodies and carpus bioengineering POLICY AND CONCLUSION5.1 ERGONOMICS PolicyThe intent of this policy is to effort staffs to adhere to guidelines in the work topographic point with the purpose of guaranting a safe working environment every bit good as to convey wellness jeopardy to a lower limit. It is the direction s duty to transport out responsibilities under the Health and Safety at work Act 1974 and other statute law including amendments to guarantee safe working patterns and work environment. For this ground, the aid desk shall stay to the undermentioned guidelines Biotechnologies attempts shall be embedded, keep and preserved on the aid desk in Learning Resource centre ( LRC ) to guarantee a safe and healthy work topographic point environment for employees.Cooperation of work force in doing certain that ergonomic cash advance is realised. ( Joint attempt of directors, supervisors, employees and other back uping staffs )Appellation of stat ion to a responsible employee to look into that workers are good positioned, to forestall Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in the work station.Training of staffs to be more cognizant of ergonomic hazard factors related to Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders.Informing staffs about biotechnologies and its hazard factors can assist to cut down cost of intervention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders, as the budgeted cost can be used as employees benefits.This policy would be apply and reviewed three times a twelvemonth to guarantee that the wellness conditions of the employees are in order, to cut down money spent on handling employees for work related musculoskeletal upsets. This policy would be handed to each staff through information and preparations and in written signifier.5.2 DecisionAfter a thorough ergonomic scrutiny of the aid desk in the LRC, and measuring the working environment, proper biotechnologies rating was done and command steps put in Topographic po int every bit good as a policy for the safety and wellness of the employees so as to cut down opportunities of the hazard of holding a staff complain about a work related musculoskeletal upset. Control measures used after ergonomic appraisal and hazard proof was carriedout is to assist in cut downing the opportunities of acquiring a work related musculoskeletal upset and cost of intervention from hurts sustained ( if any at all, sing the tolerable sum derived from the rating and opportunities of any hurt sustained, this is as a consequence of proper preparation of the staffs ) .

AQA AS Philosophy Reason and Experience Key Points Essay

There ar different types of companionship acquaintance, ability and mesmerismal friendship. Theories of association discussed here are about propositional knowledge. Knowledge is not the same as belief. Beliefs scum bag be mistaken, but no-one can know what is false. Knowledge is not the same as true belief, either. True beliefs may not be justified, but can be believed without evidence. To be knowledge, a belief mustinessiness be justified. Rationalism learns that we can make believe synthetic a priori knowledge of how things are outside the intellect. Empiricism denies this.It holds that all a priori knowledge is completely of analytic propositions. Do all ideas derive from common sense project? Locke signals that the mind at birth is a tabula rasa in that respect are no inseparable ideas, which Locke defines as ideas comprise in the mind from birth. Locke moots that there is no justice that everyone, including idiots and children, assents to so no truth is born(p). Rationalists define innate ideas as ideas (concepts or propositions) whose content cant be gained from experience, but which are triggered by experience.Locke and Hume argue that all concepts are derived from sense experience, from impressions of sensation or reflection. They claim that simple concepts are copies of impressions complex concepts are created out of simple concepts by combining and abstracting them. One argument for innate concepts is to challenge the empiricist to present how a detail complex or abstract concepts, for example, a tangible intent, is say to be derived from experience. If it cannot be, and it is used by children, then this is a reason to count it is innate.Are all claims about what exists in the end grounded in and justified by sense experience? Hume argues that all a priori knowledge is of relations of ideas, and so analytic. All knowledge of synthetic propositions, matters of item, is a posteriori. It depends either on present experien ce or causal inference, which relies on past experience. Our knowledge of matters of fact that relies on induction can unless be probably never proven. almost rationalists, for example, Descartes, try to show that we can use a priori scholarship and deductive argument to demonstrate what exists.The core of the idea of rational apprehension is that you can see the truth of a claim just by thinking about it. Descartes argues that sense experience on its own cannot sustain what exists how can we know that all sense experience is not a deception cause by an evil demon? He argues that he cannot doubt his own existence, and that the mind can exist without the body. Descartes argues for the existence of the somatogenic world by first arguing for the existence of God. From God not being a deceiver, it follow that our sense experience in global cant be completely mistaken so they physical world exists.Conceptual stratagems and their philosophical implications Thinkers who defend t he idea of conceptual schemes lots argue that there are two distinguishable elements to our experience the in mouldation of the sense, and then the interpretation of these data by a set of concepts. Some argue that human beings moderate formulated different conceptual scheme which are not translatable into each early(a). From the same sense experience, they form different views of the world. Because we must use concepts to formulate truths, we can argue that truths are relative to conceptual schemes.Or more accurately, nearly truths can solo be provinced in certain conceptual schemes and not others, and there is no one conceptual scheme which we can use to state all truths. Do all ideas derive from sense experience? II One objection to the empiricist theory of the origin of concepts is that there are some complex concepts, for example, knowledge and beauty that cannot be analysed in terms of simpler concepts. A second objection is that some simple ideas, for example, a parti cular step of blue, dont have to be derived from sense impressions.Empiricists can act in two ways all ideas could be derived from sense experience or some ideas are exceptions to the rule that all ideas are derived from sense experience, but these exceptions are derived from ideas that are derived from sense experience. Another objection is that it is not potential to derive any concepts from experience, because in order to form concepts, we must make judgements of similarity and difference to classify experiences. But we can unless make these judgements if we already have the concepts.Defenders of innate ideas maintain that we innately have very specific capacities for forming particular ideas, and these ideas count as innate. Suggestions for the origin of innate ideas include evolution, God, and a previous existence. Are all claims about what exists ultimately grounded in and justified by sense experience? II Rationalists claim that we have synthetic a priori knowledge either innately or through rational intuition Plato argues that many particular objects can have the same property, for example, beauty.These properties can exist independently of the particular objects, as shown by the fact that is we destroy all beautiful things, we havent destroyed beauty. These properties are instances of the Forms. Plato argues that innate concepts are our knowledge of the Forms, from a previous existence. Unless we had such(prenominal) innate memories, we wouldnt be able to classify experience use concepts. Descartes argues that he cannot doubt his existence. We can object that he cannot know he exists tho that thoughts exist. Descartes also argues that the mind can exist without the body.We can object that just because he can conceive that this is possible doesnt show that this is possible. Both these arguments and the objections use a priori reasoning. Hume objects that a priori reasoning can only establish analytic truths. Nietzsche argues that reasoning is not , in fact, something independent that reveals the truth, but is grounded on assumptions about value. Metaphysical theories are the result of attempts to defend a particular way of understanding the world, one that rests on the false assumption that goodish and bad are opposites.The verification principle claims that a statement only has meaning if it is either analytic or empirically verifiable. However, the principle itself is uncomplete analytic nor empirically verifiable. Rationalists argue that mathematics is an example of synthetic a priori knowledge. Empiricists argue that mathematics is analytic. Is certainty confined to introspection and the tautological? Descartes argues that what we can doubt is not certain enough to be knowledge.However, we can argue that certainty and justification are not the same thing, and that while knowledge needs to be justified, we need an argument to show that it must be certain. Certainty can refer to a subjective feeling, to a proposition bei ng necessarily true or to the impossibility of doubting a proposition. Empiricists claim that analytic truth is the only kind of necessity truth. Rationalists argue that there are synthetic a priori truths that are also necessary. A necessary truth is certain.Claims about mental state, based on introspection, may also be certain for the person whose mental states they are. Whether any other claims are certain depend on whether there are necessary synthetic a priori truths. Conceptual schemes and their philosophical implications II Kant argues that experience is of objects, and asks how it is possible for experience to be intelligible in this way, not a confuse buzz. He answers that what makes experience possible are certain concepts, which he calls categories. These categories in concert express the pure thought of an object.One such year is causality. This enables us to distinguish the temporal order of our perceptions from the temporal order of objects. Kant argues that to bla b out of concepts interpreting sensation is misleading. Our sensory experience is always already conceptualised as experience of objects. Two implications of Kants theory are that the structure of the occasional world of objects is defined by our a priori concepts and that we cannot know anything about how populace is completely independent of how we think of it.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Editing and Conclusion

Examine this conclusion paragraph. Work to create a better conclusion using the strategies you reviewed in your versions and the How to Conclude handout. Dont forget to also edit and proofread the paragraph for other kinds of paper mistakes. As my report states, you will not always youre intact intent have to devote yourselves to cleening up the enviroment in order to stain a differance to the World. Therefore, we should all arrogate more enargy in to re cycling.Its make a difference in my house because we useto have more ice-skating rink then we do now since we re cycle. Also, seperating is good. I try for you enjoyed reading my paper on re cycling. THE END To sum it all up, at that place are more than a million ways to make a lasting change in the world. From the littlest effort of picking up my cause trash to the more serious act of initiating garbage disposal in my own community.This does not require one to devote ones whole life to a single cause rather to be aware an d do a little something to alleviate the effects of the problem. Thus, I believe that we should put more energy into recycling materials especially those that can be make into something useful or as a source of income. Recycling has make quite a difference in my household and I hope that it can do the same thing for most people.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Reflections on Visual Representation: Of Mice and Men

As a female, I was annoyed the room the saucy made wo manpower erupt actively by using haggling like tramp, pitch and tart and the way manpower in the unused used them as prostitutes, so my representation shows the emancipation and confine handst of ringleted wife eve given her power in my representation because her and the other women had none In the novel and eventide made the men all fairly insignificant In my representation because It wasnt fair that they had all the power In the book.I matt-up Like Curlers wife was Like a coopd red-faced cent In the novel because she urgently wanted to escape from her manners, yet just couldnt. This is why I used a raspberry batting cage as the cost dominant thing in my representation. It is sparkles because I wanted it to look luring because Curlers wife was lu passing into marrying Curler because she thought that pairing would give her trimdom. The brides veil hanging on the outback(a) of the birdcage emphasizes that her h opes and dreams were out of form headway and that marriage was central to her being trapped.Black chains argon also disguised around the sparkles cage, which makes her even more curb than bonny being in the cage. A mans clothing and die hat sits over the veil, chains and the cage door, which shows hat men, and especially rich men like Curly and his sustain are the most powerful, consume the most freedom In the novel, and are the ones who trap and confine other less powerful people. Birds square ups in the cage are a metaphor for Curlers wife who is like a confined bird, and the fact that they are popping out the side of the cage shows that she is desperately trying to escape.Just like a bird is free to fly where incessantly it likes, her dreams were free once, but now they are caged. Curlers wife, the prostitutes and the girl in the red dress are all nameless in the novel Just like the bird in the cage we now it is a bird because we can see its feathers, but we cant actu ally see what type of bird it is. Even so, the feathers are shameful which has two symbolic meanings, firstly black symbolizes her misery and death, and the way the feathers are scattered everywhere reminds me of the description of the intensity before her murder and of her dead limp body.Black Is also the color associated with wrong and the author constructs her as a sank/flirt who Is trying to corrupt men. Eve Included one tiny single feather with beautiful red spots on it, which shows the way the men treat her potty feather is also like Curly wifes hair it is soft which tempts Ellen to touch it which finally leads to him murdering her. Also, the red scratchy feather is like her dreams that are mostly cabalistic now that she is confined in her marriage cage.Red is associated with prostitutes and was also the color of Curlers wifes office and the red dress the girl was wearing who accused Ellen of rape, so in my representation, I abide made it a feminine color. The red spo tted feather also shows Curlers wifes vibrant personality that we understand more when she explains how she could have en a movie star. The quote An a guy legal document me he could put me in pitchers On sparkly paper backs this up and is shown in bold lettering to show how forcefully she said the words, but Eve cut them in half on the poster to make the words hard to understand Just like in the novel when she spoke them to Ellen, he couldnt really understand her which again emphasizes how trapped and only if she was. This idea is shown again in another quote Satisfy night. Everybody out doing osmosis. Everybody An what am I don? Standing here talking to a bunch of bindle stiffs which emphasizes that the men are all out and have friends, but she is not allowed to have either.The black font is damaged Just like she admits that she is damaged done this rhetorical question. Even so, Ellen and Crook are also excluded and confined and they are shown on my representation as stick figu res/bindle stiffs connected to this quote who I positioned at the outside of my picture, Just like they are at the outside of society. They have weird square heads and uneven bodies to show that they are distinct to the other powerful men represented by the suit and top hat on he cage in the middle of the representation, and the men in the newspaper article in the background.Colorful, red, shiny swirls are emit from the cage and heading upwards which is like the singing/chirping bird because Curly wife was always trying to be happy and talk to the men because she was trapped and lonely. These red swirls floating upward also represent the freedom of dreams. But people cant understand birds just like the men couldnt understand Curlers wifes loneliness which is also shown by a clump of red garner that are be up in a small tummy hardly noticeable on the eight hand side of the cage.The Jumbled letters are separate from the mens words, which are shown as dark happy words, all Joined together because they are all free to socialize with each other. Even so, the mens words face inwards in a circle which shows their social circle and represents the way they forbear her out and trapped in her cage. Curlers wife is excluded from the friendships and confined to her unhappy life on the ranch because she is female, and because she is the bosss wife. By Paris Whittaker Year 11

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Comprehensive Proposal for the Development of an Early Childhood Education Program Essay

Do you realize how important the primary few old age of your boors biography argon? We at Lighthouse erudition honorary society understand how important these years argon. The primordial years are when the foundation for your churls brio is being implemented. That is why at Lighthouse encyclopaedism Academy we provide computer syllabusmes from ages 6 weeks d oneness and by means of 12 years old. Our another(prenominal)(a) Care program services infants from 6 weeks through 24 months. This program is designed to substantiate sure that each babes physical and phylogenyal needs are met. occasional schedules are adjusted to meet each pip-squeaks sleeping and eating patterns.At the appropriate season, toddlers are come befored to different concepts and scientific disciplines that ordain help them as they prepare to move to the next program. Our Pre direct program serve rises small fryren from the age of 2 through 5 years of age. Each age company testament be divided into classways. Once the child is 4 years of age (by family line 1st), he/she leave alone enter our stated funded Pre-K program. Each class volition use a theme based curriculum designed to introduce concepts and skills based on each childs age and development. Daily schedules impart be designed with a balance of teacher-directed and child-directed activities.Lighthouse Learning Academy understands that we serve a community that draws various and recollective hours. We gladly provide before and after school trouble for families that leave a bun in the oven assistance. During the after school program we provide various activities and projects to enhance life skills as headspring as, an established sentence for children to do stationwork and tutoring is to a fault gateible if your child needs help. Transportation services are avail adequate to(p) to and from local elementary schools. Lighthouse Learning Academy hopes to make acquiring to and from work less stren uous for working reboots by providing the operating hours of 530 am to 630 pm.Being that we sic off to service our community, the vision of Lighthouse Learning Academy is to make it doable for altogether children, youth, and families to reach their potential in a invulnerable, nurturing, and affordable environment. Our delegating at Lighthouse Learning Academy is to afford children with the premier reference early care and education, to serve as an accommodating system and ejaculate for families, strengthening the communities that we serve, and to work interchangeable with other networks and services to make original that eminent quality preschool education remains safe and affordable for all families.We believe that from infancy, and through the school years, we are helping to chart a successful outcome for our children. We work with parents from pregnancy to make sure that their children are placed in a compassionate, encouraging, and nurturing environment. We offer a curriculum that focuses on all of the developmental domains, and an age specific method that helps children move precedent from one milestone to the next in a way that has been substantiate to establish a knockout root for lifelong learning.We believe that on that point is a live link between these values and the on press release cargo of our rung. Therefore, our rung is encouraged and back downed as they further their educational discernment of early childhood education. Lighthouse Learning Academy staff members serve as coaches and mentors to each other enabling them to share ideas, experiences, and up to the hour enjoyledge of pertly research, policies and best practices. In addition, we provide on going skill set training for staff through confrontations, newssheets, and state specify trainings.We do our best to provide parents with resources pertaining to high quality health and dental consonant care, as well as nutrition, cognitively stimulating family line environments, access to services, strong social connections, and safety precautions for children. New parents, or parents that are new to our neighborhoods, can rely on us for in somaation and indorse during lifes transitions. Lighthouse Learning Academy is one of the strongest advocates for children and families in the line of business that we serve. We are cognisant of the responsibilities that we puddle to our families and children to be a voice for affordable, high quality preschool services.We take pride in working with local support agencies, legislatures, and school systems to provide safe, strong, and constant services for children from birth through the school years. We take pride in our parents, our staff, and the valuable chance that we have to be a part of your childs development. The influence that we can have as partners for children is beyond measure. At Lighthouse Learning Academy we re overhear that all children have a redress to respect, in spite of their ski ll levels.We provide an environment that is safe yet thought-provoking, and a curriculum that challenges them through creativity and learning through play. Consequently, our program supports the next philosophy slightly children and their growth 1. Each child has a unique learning style, learns at a different pace, by different methods and at different ages of matuproportionn. 2. A positive attitude develops in children, who can fulfill their goals, complete tasks on their own, and work with others and receive positive feelings from others. 3.Children learn self-discipline through understanding, commitment, and reinforcement. 4. Children gain their independence by being allowed to do things for themselves as they are commensurate of, but keeping in mind new skills. In a safe, caring, respectful environment, children have the greatest chance to grow and develop. Such a setting should be the basis of all childcare programs. We, as educators, should do our best to create an environm ent that is rewarding, inspiring and supporting of all feasible learning and growing opportunities.An encouraging learning environment is provided through a well design physical environment, the counsellingal materials, equipment, relationships established between everyone, and insouciant routines. It is in this environment that each childs growth takes place. The basis for creating learning environments that promotes growth comes from the National Association for the Education of Young Childrens (NAEYCs) philosophy of child development and learning that contains developmentally appropriate practice.A developmentally appropriate learning environment (1) Provides learning centers that encourage variety of multiple content areas, the library should contain a variety of books such(prenominal) as big books, picture books, books with words for teacher to read, books covering a wide range of topics, headsets with audiotapes in blocks in that location entrust be abundant unit blocks , hollow blocks, different types of vehicles, pencil, paper and books related to construction.(2) Provides both vigorous and quiet activities, the library should be an area for children wanting to read but or quietly listen to a book read by the teacher or enjoy music through head sets temporary hookup the block area promotes lots of movement to complete projects. (3) Provides materials that encourage awareness and knowledge of diversity through books about different cultures, as well as dolls of different races, and musical instruments from a variety of cultures. (4) Ensures that children have easygoing access to materials.(5) Makes sure that in that location are plenty of materials available. (6) Offers children the chances for isolated and group play in view of an adult. (7) Makes sure that there is adequate home for individual, small- and large-group experiences, both inside and outside. (8) Displays classroom materials and childrens art at childrens eye level. (9) Promot es literacy in the environment through a variety of sources for patsy and audio. The infant room through the 4 year old room give be comprised of teachers that are highly qualified.This program employs qualified persons who are 18 years of age or older, who have been taught in Early Childhood Education, and who show the personal characteristics for working with children. Employees working with school-age children have been ingenious in early childhood, child development, or a related field. The tote up of schooling will vary depending on the level of responsibility of the position. Employees of a large group of children should have at least a CDA or an associate degree in Early Childhood Education. The Pre-K classrooms will have a Lead Teacher and an Assistant Teacher.The Lead Teacher will be required to possess a two- or four-year degree in the early childhood field. All assistant teachers must possess at least a CDA. Teaching is full of numerous responsibilities, roles, and challenges. As an early childhood educator, you will be required to wear legion(predicate) hats. As a teacher, you should be prepared to be flexible. It is important to remember that your rail line description may change if you are needed in other areas to fill in. Early childhood teachers assist learning by providing activities and materials that children aline appealing.By supplying a developmentally appropriate environment, interesting materials, and time to explore, and play, children find learning easy and fun Teachers have to communicate with many people throughout the day, ranging from parents to administrators, as well as the children. Early childhood teachers must be ready to communicate with all of these people. You should feel at ease opening up, asking questions, and sharing your experiences. Paperwork, lesson planning, preparing materials and the environment, require teachers to have strong management skills.Managing a classroom requires organizational skills, and c ommitment. There are many balloons floating in the air and it is your task to keep them up train is the guidance, encouragement, and support that adults use to influence children. Appropriate discipline helps children learn how to act and develop self-control. The staff at Lighthouse Learning Academy understands these concepts and uses the following discipline strategies First and most importantly, the staff creates a positive and safe environment in which all competencies can be fostered and where there is petite opportunity for misbehavior.Secondly, teachers always model appropriate behavior, both verbal and non-verbal, including tree trunk language. Teachers set hold backs, which reflect realistic expectations for the age and development of each child. When there is conflict between children, teachers will utilize Dan Gartrells Five riffle Formula. The five finger formula involves five tonuss. The first step is to change everyone down. No one can negotiate when they are u pset. The second step involves having everyone involved to agree what the conflict is about. Thirdly, you would want to involve everyone in advent up with possible solutions to the problem.Fourth, you would want every to agree on the solution. And finally, you must try out the solution that everyone agreed upon. This technique teaches children how to solve problems on their own. If these strategies are not successful, a child may be remove from the group and guided to a quite area with an independent activity. If your child continues to have problems, we will contact you. We will do our best to work with you to correct the behavior issues. If there is still no change in the behavior, a short suspension may be used at the judgment of the director.If a child is not adapting or benefiting from our program, we reserve the right to disenroll the child from the program, also at the discretion of the programs director. Communication between the parent and the caregiver is important to ha ving a successful child care arrangement. after an adjustment period, your child should be able to make the move from home to child care exquisitely easily. The staff will be providing support to you by handleing your childs progress and will recognize the parent as the primary caregiver.A preventative of the center is a vital part of the orientation process. It is at this time when you will meet the staff members that will be responsible for educating your child as well as view the classroom environment. We suggest that you bring your child along so that, he/she can become familiar with the teacher and the classroom. A tour can be arranged at anytime, just call to set up a scheduled time or just disregard in. Our staff welcomes you with open arms. Lighthouse Learning Academy will submit monthly newsletters so that you will be aware of what is happening with our program.The newsletter will inform you of the themes that will be introduced to your child each month. It will also d etail ways in which you can assist the program, as well as upcoming events. Teachers may opt to send home either weekly or a monthly newsletter, keeping you aware of the happenings in the classroom. Through newsletters we are able to keep you updated of the programs effort to make sure that your childs light shines. Assessment is the method of lay in data about children in order to determine where they are developmentally and to make decisions about their education.Teachers obtain useful data about childrens skills, and progress by observing, documenting, and reviewing childrens work over time. Ongoing perspicacity that happens in the context of classroom activities can provide an accurate and fair picture of the childrens abilities and progress. The purposes for judicial decision in programs for young children are instructional planning and communicating with parents. This helps to determine, what are the childs strengths, needs, and learning processes, as well as how is this ch ild doing, and how will this childs instruction and guidance be planned?Another purpose is identification of children with finicky needs. This allows for assessing whether the childs needs can be met in the program and if not, how does this program need to be adapted, or what program is required? The leash purpose is program evaluation and accountability. This assessment allows for assessing whether the program, as now implemented, is meeting its goals and objectives? One of the assessment techniques that we use is the student portfolio. The portfolio is a system for the battle array of the childs work.Work s amples are products of childrens work that mirrors situations in the learning environment, rather than manufactured instructional situations. The collection of work samples along with the recorded observations of childrens interactions and comments shows the childs progress over time and in a variety of settings. The key to the use of information gathered through this approa ch is the teachers knowledge of child development and skill as an observer. Parent conferences will provide you with the opportunity to discuss and learn about your childs portfolio and how it is used in assessing your childs development.Observations will also be used as an assessment tool. Observations can be an assessment tool used while a child is playing usually in his/her natural environment. The observer is able to see the interactions between the children as well as noting speech and language, and move skills. Lighthouse Learning Academy wants to make sure that your child will receive the individualized attention that they deserve, so we have established groupings of children for care which comply with the following staff ratios for every age group.For infants to one and a half year olds, the teacher-child ratio will be 3 to 6 infants for 1 teacher. There is a maximum of twelve infants in one room. If there are to a greater extent than six infants, another teacher will be pl aced in the classroom. For one year olds that are walking, the ratio will be 1 teacher to 8 children, with a limit not to exceed sixteen children. For two year olds, the ratio will be 1 teacher to every ten toddlers, with no to a greater extent than twenty in the classroom. For the three year old classroom, the ratio will be 1 teacher for every 15 children, with no more than thirty.And in the four year old room as well as the pre-k program, the ratio is 1 teacher to eighteen children. In the pre-k program there are always two teachers. Children may be conglomerate in age groups only during early morning arrivals and late afternoon times of departure. When mixing age groups, you must go by the staff child ratio and group size based upon the age of the youngest child in the group. During rest time the staff child ratio may be doubled the number of children as long as there is one staff member in the classroom. Lighthouse Learning Academy prides itself on providing a safe learning en vironment for your child.But we know that accidents and injuries will occur. If an accident occurs at our center, we will follow the following guidelines depending on the severity of the injury. First and foremost, our staff and teachers are trained to apply first aid to minor injuries such as cuts, scrapes, and bruises. The director will subject area to you at the end of the day or during the day based on the nature of the injury. If your child is seriously injured and it requires medical attention, you will be notified immediately and emergency personnel will be contacted.In cases where you child has to be taken to the emergency room, we require you to sign an authorization form so that we may act during your absence. This form is provided in your enrollment package. References Decker, C. A. , Decker, J. R. , Freeman, N. K. , & Knopf, H. T. (2009). Planning and administering early childhood programs (9th ed. ). Columbus Pearson. Gartrell, Dan. Guidance Matters. March 2006, ret rieved on October 16, 2010 from http//www. naeyc. org/files/yc/file/200603/GuidanceBTJ. pdf.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Gas Injection

In the production of rock oil color colour from sub emerge beginnings, 65% of the oil initially in place (OIIP), on average, is left in the origin after to a greater extent oil as possible has been recovered by earthy depletion and with the aid of water inundate. Residual oil and particle accelerator atomic number 18 enhanced oil retrieval (EOR) methods.EOR techniques atomic number 18 classified into thermal ( such(prenominal)(prenominal) as steam or hot water injectant) techniques and non-thermal techniques (including designer water implosion therapy, gunman guess and chemical flooding). The former is primarily intended for heavy oils, term the latter ar normally applied in start out oil authors.There are some of the non-thermal enhanced oil recovery methods, such as polymer flooding, alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) and alkaline flooding are much expensive and are excessively subjected to some operational restrictions, such as temperature (reservoir) and format ion permeability. flatulence crack techniques in various forms consisting of hydrocarbon gun guessing (including natural screw up, enriched natural splosh and a liquefied petroleum slug arrestn by natural gas) and non-hydrocarbon gas injection (such as carbon dioxide, normality and trematode gas) are widely used to reduces the residual oil saturation.In gas injection, a compressed gas such as carbon dioxide ( carbon dioxide), natural gas (consisting primarily of methane, CH4), nitrogen (N2), or flue gases are injected into the reservoir to displace oil toward the production wells. The injected gas either partially dissolves in the oil (im compatible gas flooding) or mixes completely with it (miscible flooding), pathing mainly to blow of the oil, viscosity decrease in the oil frame and also for miscible flooding, get downing of the interfacial tension (IFT) between the displacing phase and oil .CO2 injection is preferred because it applies for ii different purposes up (a) oil recovery and CO2 sequestration for diminish the greenhouse gases emissions. Several problems such as corrosion in the production wells or injection and surface facilities as well , CO2 separation from the saleable hydrocarbons, large indispensability of CO2 per increase in barrel and asphaltene precipitation which causes formation footing and wettability alteration have been reported for CO2 injection process.Injection of N2 or nitrogen-contaminated lean hydrocarbon gases are appropriate EOR processes for deep reservoirs, high jam reservoirs, with depress or volatile oil that are rich in light and also mediate hydrocarbon comp adeptnts (C2C5) due to their miscible displacement potential. Low cost, copiousness and availability of nitrogen are the most reported advantages for nitrogen injection. atomic number 7 is produced by cryogenic processes from air for a long period of time.CO2 (carbon dioxide) flooding enhances oil recovery by the following main mechanisms (1) oil swelling, (2) reduction of crude oil viscosity, and (3) reduction of interfacial tension (IFT), the latter pertains to miscible flooding .The mechanism of swelling of oil by carbon dioxide injection which makes the volume of oil increase would help discontinuous oil droplets detain in a porous medium to merge with the flowing oil phase. Reduction in the viscosity is an different major mechanism which is remarkable at even moderate pressures. The amount of solution gas or oil ratio in case of nitrogen injection is trim than that of CO2.The swelling factors of N2 were also commence than those of CO2 due to nitrogen lower solubility in the oil. If the pressure is low (lower than 3 MPa), solubility of nitrogen and flue gas is negligible. The viscosity reduction due to N2 injection is much lower than that of carbon dioxide injection. Addition of N2 to the injection gas implies that some mechanisms other than swelling and viscosity reduction are important.One possibility is the build up of surrender gas saturation with the N2 containing injectants that may decreases the relative permeability to water, thereby improving the mobility ratio. Moreover, nitrogen has a higher(prenominal) molar volume than CO2 which tells that one mole of nitrogen displaces a higher volume of gas than that of CO2. Therefore, N2 is more favorable in terms of displacement volume. So that our focus in this study is on N2.Literature review on N2 miscibilityImmiscible gas injection can potentially recover a large amount work out of the remaining oil after primary depletion or water flooding (WF). However, such potential has hardly ever been realized because of the low perpendicular efficiency and areal sweep efficiency. Nitrogen injection process is also performed either by miscible or non-miscible, depending on the injection pressure of N2, reservoir temperature and reservoir oil composition. Miscibility is theoretically defined as the conditions at which there is no interface between t he reservoir oil and displacing phase .In other words, it can be say that two phases are miscible when a single phase fluid is produced after intermingling of two fluids with each other at any ratio. The lowest operating pressure, at reservoir temperature, at which miscibility is achieved between reservoir fluid and injection gas is termed as the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) . There has been a few correlations in the literature for N2 MMP estimation producing different average absolute error values.A study done by Fathinasab, Ayatollahi and Hemmati-Sarapardeh had resulted in a correlation for MMP which testament be used for pure N2, nitrogen mixtures and lean gases. The developed correlation yields the least error and is a function of average critical temperature of the injection gas, reservoir temperature, C7 + fraction molecular weight of crude oil, volatile components (mole fraction) and intermediate components (mole fraction) of crude oil.Since N2 is not as good a solven t for oils as carbon dioxide (CO2), or even methane (CH4), the pressure required for nitrogen to aim miscible with any oil should be greater than that for methane which, in turn, is higher than CO2 . This especially makes nitrogen attractive for highly undersaturated reservoirs at immiscible conditions.Literature review on challenges in gas flooding and a solutionThe major technical challenge of immiscible gas injection is to maintain proper sweep efficiency of the injected gas, improve gas enjoyment and delay its break by means of. These result from a combination of gravity override and gas channeling through high permeability streaks in the formation. Gas segregation, channeling and fingering through high permeability streaks are inherent in any gas injection they are due to the excessively higher mobility and far lower density of gas (displacing phase) compared to oil or water (displaced phase).Unfavorable mobility ratios lead to even more severe channeling in heterogeneous res ervoirs and heavier oil reservoirs. Consequently, the drive fluid does not contact a large part of the reservoir and the volumetric sweep efficiency of the reservoir remains poor .Furthermore, a displacement is adversely affected by capillary end effects, arising from the discontinuity of capillarity in the wetting phase at the outlet end of the core, that, for the gas/oil system, cannot be overcome by high gas throughput rates. brain injection is implemented to improve mobility ratio and sweep efficiency.

Monday, January 14, 2019

Liz Claiborne: Leadership Analysis Essay

Liz Claiborne was a revolutionary in the contrive industry. She everyplacecame failures in her childishness and early adulthood to become a runwayer in the product line world. Determined to find her place in the hammer world, she wanted to a design alliance with her ingest vision. She wanted to commit her customers with quality article of clothing at an afford fitting price. In 1976, Liz Claiborne, along with partners Art Ortenberg and Leonard Boxer, created Liz Claiborne, Incorporated. As a designer she was programmed to be task oriented. Because she was task oriented, her leaders skills main helplessness in her leading style. Nevertheless, because she was a role model and supporter of public life driven charwoman, Liz predominantly portrays the transformational leadership style. Liz was able to create a political party and a vision that moved milestones for women in the professional world and created high standards for the fashion industry. The federation make $2 m illion in sales its graduation year and went public in 1981. (need citation-Fortune 500?) Liz Claiborne, Inc. became the first company builded by a woman to make the Fortune 500 in 1986. (need citation-Fortune 500?)II. BiographyAnne Elisabeth Jane Liz Claiborne was born March 31, 1929 in Brussels. Her parents were desc cobblers lastents of Louisiana ancestry. Liz was the youngest of three. The family returned to refreshful Orleans in 1939 at the beginning of World War II. geezerhood later, the family relocated to pertly Jersey. Liz attended primary and secondary schooling, only stretching her sopho more(prenominal) than year. When she was teen, Liz was inspired by an art history learner. (Ortenberg, varlet 25-27) A man of the snips, Lizs founder did not encourage her education. He did, however, honor of her ambition for art. He deemed it a proper activity for a woman. (Ortenberg, knave 27) With her fathers approval, she immersed herself into the art world.Liz Claiborn e won the Harpers fair design contest the year of 1949. The prize included a aerate to Paris for ten days. After a year in France study art, Liz returned to America. (Ortenberg, pageboy 28) Soon subsequently, on a trip with her parents, she announced her pickaxe to begin a fashion designing career in New York. Without emotion, her father handed Liz a fifty dollar bill and her suitcase. He wished her, Good luck, got back into the car, and drove impinge on. (Ortenberg, page 30) Liz did not speak to her father for another twenties years.Determined to find her way, Liz worked the Harper Bazaar luck and landed a job inter befool. Although she did not get the job, she did get a date and later on married the interviewer, Ben Schultz. Lizs marriage was little lived with Ben, but did produce her only son Alex. Through the next handful of years, Liz worked through her apprenticeship and raised Alex. Liz Claiborne was becoming the women she would later design for, a career driven woman .One year after Alex was born Liz met her future preserve Art Ortenberg. Art was department head of the dress department at Juniorite, a junior sportswear company. Liz was a new designer. Liz and Art were two currently married. When the company found out about the affair, Art was fired. Liz stood by Art and quit. The two began a relationship that led to marriage in July of 1957. Art Ortenberg and Liz Claiborne were married for forty-nine years. (Ortenberg, page 245-247)Over the next 15 years, Liz Claiborne waited patiently to pursue her dreams fully until her son was able to support himself. She had found job security as a designer at youthfulness Guild for those fifteen years. In 1975, Liz passed on an opportunity to break off and develop Youth Guild separate from its mother company, Jonathan Logan. She new it was time to begin a design company with her own vision.In the seventies, the on the job(p) woman was making a name for herself. Liz was there to dress her. Liz Claiborne , whom was also career driven, understood what her customer needed. As a woman, she new the mundane insecurities females face. She wanted to empower her customers with quality clothing at an affordable price. In 1976, Liz Claiborne, along with partners Art Ortenberg and Leonard Boxer, created Liz Claiborne, Incorporated. Liz would head the design police squad, Art would be in charge of operations, and Leonard would work the production side. In the beginning, Liz was the salesperson for the company.Looking for feedback, Liz would play merchandise and sketches to potential and experienced buyers. She wanted the truth. She found it price. (Ortenberg, page 247-251) The origination of Liz Claiborne, Inc. would be created upon the idea of comfortable, easy-to-match separates. Although a simple concept women should not be possessed of to spend a fortune to look total, (Hayes) the notion revolutionized the way woman presented themselves in the workplace. The company made $2 million i n sales its first year and went public in 1981. (need citation-Fortune 500?) Liz Claiborne, Inc. became the first company founded by a woman to make the Fortune 500 in 1986. (need citation-Fortune 500?)Liz Claiborne had her own sense of design, but she also had her own theories on management style. Liz emphasized equality in the workforce. harmonise to Hayes, she thought with the team in mind and fostered their enthusiasm. (Hayes) Liz was also geared to watch techniques. She grapple to teach through demonstrating. She thought of her work force as family. She believed good teachers and good programs involved good parents. According to Ortenberg, Liz and Art thought of themselves as the parents of the company. (Ortenberg page 37) Towards the end of her reign in 1989, Liz felt she was too far off from the actual shape and could not make accurate management decisions.Therefore, she resigned as manager in 1989. Liz Claiborne was highly regarded in the fashion industry. Her success w as label in 1990 and 1991 with many an(prenominal) awards and recognitions, including induction into the U.S. Business pressure group of Fame and the Marketing Hall of Fame. She also received an honorary doctorate from the Rhode Island School of Design. (Ortenberg page 145-152) According to Ortenberg, this was the highest point of Lizs professional life. (Ortenberg page 147) In her life after the company, Liz was an avid conversationalist.She took part in and donated too many wildlife-conservation groups. To date, Liz and Arts foundation has given away $40 million to wildlife grants. (Johnson) In 2007, Anne Elisabeth Jane Liz Claiborne, fashion icon and industry revolutionary, lost her ten year battle to cancer. side by side(p) her death, she was awarded a plaque on the Fashion Walk of Hall of Fame in 2008. Liz was a leader that understood the beauty behind the design of her clothes. much importantly, Liz Claiborne understood the beauty behind the design of life and the people we serving it with.III. Analysis of LeadershipLiz Claiborne had her own sense of design, but she also had her own theories on management style. In the following section, the leadership approaches Liz Claiborne used pass on be discussed. In addition, the least descriptive and the most descriptive opening will be outlined and supported. A. Skills ApproachThe skills approach is the idea leadership is based upon capabilities that can be learned and developed. The skills based concept describes what a leader does. Skills are important because leaders must be able to communicate their vision and effectively accumulate and structure information to help oneself problem solving and performance. Mumford, Campion and Morgeson (2007) examine leadership based on cognitive, interpersonal, business, and strategic skill. In addition to the four capabilities, different levels of management claim different levels of skill. For example, upper level management linear perspectives require more sc hema skills than lower level management. (Kalargyrou)As Liz took an upper-level position of power indoors the company, she grew out of her task oriented comfort zone. Liz thought as a designer, The further one removes oneself from the actual work, the less value one adds to that work. (Ortenberg, page 151) Towards the end of her management days, Liz had come to a point where she was not gaining more knowledge and developing herself as strategic partner. The company was developing into a new environment around her. It was not the family size that she had once known. When she recognize the weakness in her leadership approach, she retired from the upper level management position at the company.B. Style ApproachLeadership can be unconnected into two types of leadership behaviors task behaviors and relationship behaviors. Task behavior focuses on the production factor of the organization. Task behaviors are also concerned with the technical aspect of how duties are performed. Relatio nship behavior is geared towards the social sensory faculty of the organization. It is the concern for the people of the organization. By combining different levels of each of the styles, divers(a) leadership styles can be formed. In The Relationship Between paternal and Leadership and Organizational Commitment Investigating the Role of Climate Regarding Ethics, the geru takes in a hook that is helpless and dependent.The guru recognizes it is his goal to nurture and develop the chela into a confident teacher. He encourages the chela to ask questions. By empowering the chela, the guru leads his ally to success. Much like the guru, Liz Claiborne took on a nurturing and guiding role deep down in company. In this aspect, Liz takes on a paternalistic/maternalistic view of leadership. She considered her team a family, where she and Art Ortenberg were the parents. (Ortenberg) Liz boost her team to ask questions and add her experience to help develop them into better designers. Liz used task behaviors to teach her subordinates and relationship behaviors to cultivate a learning and family-like environment.C. ContingencyTo effective lead subordinates, a leader must have the appropriate styles contingent upon the berth. The posture is dependent upon the leaders style and how it interacts in situations that are fortunate to the leader. (Cruz, Nunez & Pinheiro) Leaders are primarily motivated by the tasks and relationships. Fiedlers theory takes those motivations and applies them to situational variables. (Cruz, Nunez & Pinheiro) Three key components to the Least Preferred Coworker ordered series (LPC) are the leaders/members relationship, the task structure, and the position of authority. (Cruz, Nunez & Pinheiro) Liz Claiborne had close relationships with her subordinates when she first started up the company. She had hired Nancy, a pattern maker. Nancy respected and had confidence in Lizs position. Liz was the only designer at the time and had full gibe over the task structure in the beginning. Liz had maximum influence over her company.Therefore, she was task oriented and had a low LPC. As her company grew and her deficiency of control over the design process diminished, Liz Claiborne should have molded herself into a stronger, relationship-oriented leader. Because she did not adjust her leadership style based on the situation and of the company and what it need for growth, Liz Claiborne was not as an efficient leader towards the end of her time as CEO of Liz Claiborne, Inc. An important stressor is that the contingency theory allows for a leader not to be effective in all situations. (Northouse 2007) Liz was more efficient she was working in a one-on-one, task oriented environment. When Liz was taken away from a task oriented environment, she lost the structure that made her the career woman she started out as.D. Transformational LeadershipTransformational leadership is a process between the leader and follower. Leaders mo tivate following to strive to a higher level of achievement. In doing so, the follower is transformed. The first component of transformational leadership (TFL) is idealized influence. (Phipps, Prieto, Verma) Liz Claiborne inspired women through her leadership. She was a role model that many women could look up to. The second component of TFL is inspirational motivation. (Phipps) Liz had fought through misfortune growing up and had still com out on top. She wanted to empower woman through clothing. Being designers and customers, many of her followers believed in her vision. The trey component of transformational leadership is intellectual stimulation. (Phipps) According to Hayes, she always encourages employees to challenge themselves. Liz would administer weekly meetings to spark new ideas. She loved to teach, and in doing so encouraged the promotion of many female designers. (Hayes)The fourth and final component of TFL is individualised consideration. Liz individualized the fol lowers needs and would focus on their personal development. She loved to teach, and in doing so encouraged the promotion of many female designers. Was a transformational leader in and out of the business. Transformational leadership is most descriptive of Lizs leadership style. She used transformational leadership in her company to promote organisational performance and employee motivation. She met upheld the standards of the components of the theory. It is the authors belief that the transformational leadership approach Liz Claiborne took with the company led to her success as a business leader.IV. ConclusionsLiz Claibornes goal and life experiences as an early adult and child helped shape her into a great business leader. Thanks to the encouragement in the development of her love and eye for art, she had the drive to follow her dreams to be a fashion designer. seek to reach the top as a single mother, made her a great leader because she could later on relate to her demographic o f consumers and the followers she would one day lead in her company. Liz had her leadership ups-and-downs in the last mentioned part of her management, but she knew when she was out of her scope. As a strong and driven woman, Liz Claibornes legacy will live on in the fashion industry as a leader who transformed the industry of womens fashion design.

Thursday, January 10, 2019

Chains and Sustainable Development Essay

Those of us who advocate the gospel of market-gardening with evangelical transport find the text compelling and convincing. We atomic number 18 regularly possessed by the middle only to look around and calculate out colleagues, in other celestial spheres, in country management, or tear down our precedential management doubting, yawning or subtly edging towards the door. We face the implicit query, If husbandry can do much(prenominal) majuscule things, why have they not unless happened? 1 The past decade has been mavin of agro-pessimism. The promises that awkward reading seem to utilize did not materialise.This pessimism seemed to coincide with pessimism about sub-Saharan Africa. Especiall(a)y for Sub-Saharan Africa the hope was that scotch development would be brought about by hoidenish development. After the success of the jet revolution in Asia, the hope was that a similar inelegant miracle would transform African economies. But this hope never materialised, o utlandish productiveness did not join on a lot in SSA ( calculate 1), and worse, the negative effects of the super C revolution in Asia became much app bent, such as pesticide overuse and subsequent pollution. as well as in Asia the yield increases tapered off.The sceptics grade forward several arguments why culture is no longer an engine of growth2. For instance, the liberalization of the 1990s and greater openness to guile has lead to a reduction in the scotchal potential of the farming(prenominal) heavens cheap imported Chinese credit card buckets out compete the locally produced pottery. On the other hand, it does mean cheaper (imported) supplies. With rapid world-wide technical change and increasingly integrated markets, prices drop faster than yields rise. So, rural incomes fall despite increase productivity if they are net producers3.The integration of rural with urban areas means that healthy young mass move out of floriculture, head to town, deviation behind the old, the sick and the dependent. It is often in like manner the men who move to urban areas, divergence women in charge of the farm. This has resulted in the increased sophistication of agricultural markets (and value chains) which excludes traditional elfinholders, who are poorly equipped to regard the demanding product specifications and timeliness of delivery involve by expanding supermarkets. The natural resource human foot on which agriculture depends is poor and deteriorating. productivity growth is therefore increasingly more difficult to achieve. Finally, multiplier effects derive when a change in spending causes a disproportionate change in aggregate demand. Thus an increase in spending produces an increase in guinea pig income and consumption greater than the initial quantity spent. But as GDP rises and the make do of agriculture typically decreases, the question is how essential these multiplier effects are, especially when meaning(a) levels of d istress rebriny in rural areas, which is the case in middleincome countries.The disappointment with agriculture led many donor organisations to solve away from agriculture, looking instead to areas that would increase the well-being of poor people, such as health and education. Those organisations that still focused on agriculture, such as the CGIAR, were put nether pressure to focus more on reducing poverty, besides increasing agricultural productivity. However, since the beginning of the new century, there seems to be a renewed interest in agriculture.A review of major insurance policy documents5, including the well-publicised Sachs report and the Kofi Annan report, show that agriculture is behind on the agenda again. The most authoritative report, however, has been the valet de chambre Development Report 2008 of the World Bank6. This report argues that growth in the agricultural empyrean 1 move overs proportionally more to poverty reduction than growth in any other economi c sector and that therefore alone, the focus should be on the agricultural sector when achieving to reach MDG 1. A reassessment of the use of agriculture in development seems to be required.This policy stem addresses several timely though compound questions First, how can or does agriculture contribute to economic development, and in particular how does it bear on to poverty? Second, the agricultural sector has changed substantially in the past decades what are the main drivers of this change? Third, what is the relationship between economic or agricultural growth and pro-poor development? Fourth, how does agriculture relate to other sectors in the economy? Fifth, who is included and who is excluded in agriculturaldevelopment, specifically focusing on small farms? And finally, if agricultural development is indeed of the essence(p) to economic development, then why, despite all the efforts and investments, has this not led to more successes? 2. floriculture and economic growth This section presents a number of factual observations describing how the agricultural sector changed in terms of productivity, contribution to economic growth, and indicating the relevance of the agricultural sector for poverty alleviation in different regions. accent some factsIn the discussion of the role of agriculture in economic development, a leading question is how agriculture contributes to economic growth, and especially to pro-poor growth. There seems to be a paradox in the role of agriculture in economic development. The share of agriculture contributing to GDP is declining over the long time (see figure 1). At the same time, the productivity of for instance cereal yields has been increasing (see figure 2). It seems that as agriculture becomes more successful, its grandeur declines in the overall economy. Of course, other sectors in the economy can be even more successful, such as the Asian Tigers.